AMERICAN HISTORY A SURVEY PDF
PDF | On Jan 3, , Alan Brinkley and others published Reading Ebook American History: A Survey, 12th Edition (Book & CD-ROM) (A/P US. HISTORY A SURVEY 13TH EDITION american history: a survey (pdf) by alan brinkley (ebook) Some irish american landscape american history a survey. American History A Survey Vol1 13th Edition Book Only - [Free] American History A Survey. Vol1 13th Edition Book Only [PDF] [EPUB] Many of.
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5 days ago Edition Paperback [PDF] [EPUB] American History A Survey Volume 2 By Brinkley Alan. 13th Thirteenth Edition Paperback american. MODULE STRUCTURE. The present module offers a broad survey of the main developments in the history of colonial America and of the United States down to . Here you will find AP US History notes for the American History: A Survey, 13th Edition notes. These American History: A Survey outlines will you study more.
Some redistribution of land in early years, but Pres Johnson and government returned most confiscated land to returning plantation owners ii. Most people did not own land during Reconstruction, worked for others.
Many black agricultural laborers worked only for wages, but most worked own plots of land and paid landlords rent or share of their crop d. The Crop-Lien System i.
Postwar years saw economic progress for African Americans, great increase in income. Result of black profit share increasing, greater return on labor ii.
Gains of blacks and poor whites overshadowed by ravages of crop-lien system. After war few credit institutions such as banks returned, new credit system centered on local country stores iv.
Farmers did not have steady cash flow so relied on credit to buy what they needed. Had to give lien claim on crops as collateral- bad years trapped them in debt cycle v. Effects included leading some blacks who had gained land to lose it as they became indebted, S farmers became dependent on nearly all cash crops only possibility to escape debt.
Lack of diversity led to decline in agric economy e. The African-American Family in Freedom i. Major black response during Reconstruction was effort to build or rebuild family structures, reason why many immediately left plantations was to seek relatives and family ii. The Grant Administration i.
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Grant accepted Repub nomination for president in election. Had no political experience, appointed incompetent cabinet members, relied on party leaders and spoils system. Opposing Republicans formed faction called Liberal Republicans, supported Dem nominee Horace Greeley in elections—but Grant won reelection b.
The Grant Scandals i. Series of scandals emerged plaguing Grant and Republicans. Company heads steered contracts to company costing fed government and Union Pacific millions, stock given to Congress members to stop investigation ii.
The Greenback Question i. National Greenback Party formed, unsuccessful but kept money issue alive i. Fish resolved claims against GB of violating neutrality by building ships for Confederate. Treaty of Washington allowed for arbitration of claims 5. The Abandonment of Reconstruction a. By nearly all S whites regained suffrage, worked as majority to overthrow Republicans. In areas of black majority whites used intimidations and violence Ku Klux Klan, ect.
Klan led by former Confederate Gen Nathan Forrest. Worked to advance interest of those who would gain from white supremacy- mainly planter class and Democratic party. Most of all, however, economic pressure used b. The Ku Klux Klan Acts i. Republicans tried to stop white repression, passed Enforcement Acts known as Ku Klux Klan Acts - prohibited states from discriminating against voters on race, fed government given power to prosecute violations.
Allowed pres to use military to protect civil rights, suspend habeas corpus in some situations ii. Waning Northern Commitment i.
Enforcement Acts peak of Repub enforcement of Reconstruction. After adoption of 15th Amendment many in N felt blacks should take care of themselves. Support for Liberal Democrats grew, some moves into Democratic Party ii.
Viewed poor blacks in this light, favored little government intervention to help. Depleted treasury led people to want to spend little on freedmen, poor state governments cut back on social services iii.
The Compromise of i. In elections Republicans sought new candidate to distance from corruption and attract Liberals back- chose Rutherford B Hayes, Democrats chose Sam Tilden ii. Tilden won popular vote but dispute over 20 electoral votes from 3 states.
Tilden one vote shy of electoral vote majority, Hayes needed all 20 votes to win. The data collected may be used to detect patterns in the condition of the resource as well as examine the distribution of stressors at multiple geospatial scales.
In addition to assessing the condition of aquatic resources, the NWCA seeks to help states and tribes build and enhance monitoring and assessment capacity for their wetland programs, as well as advance the science of monitoring and assessment. Participation in the survey can help inform states and tribes on the types, methods, and utility of different sampling approaches that can meet individual state or tribal needs.
The outcomes of the surveys can therefore effectively support decisions made about the resources, as well as inform future policy. A total of sites were sampled in the lower 48 states during ; an additional 41 sites were sampled in Alaska. Environmental Protection Agency, on wetland condition used the characteristics of wetland vegetation to classify wetland condition as good, fair, or poor.
The report also identified physical, chemical, and biological stressors, ranked them based on the strongest association with poor condition, and quantified the risk of a wetland being in poor condition if a given stressor is present.
ISBN 13: 9780007427833
It also identified the likelihood of condition improvement if a stressor is removed. The information is used to meet a national goal to report on the overall effectiveness of CWA programs. It identifies a baseline of the condition against which future assessments may be compared, and the results may then be used to develop program priorities to improve the effectiveness of CWA programs.
The results on both condition and stressors were produced using a number of tools developed during the NWCA analysis from the data collected U. Environmental Protection Agency, The VMMI is composed of four metrics, some of which have been used in other contexts at smaller scales. These measures were not only calibrated from the large NWCA dataset, but also independently validated using a separate portion of the dataset Magee et al.
As a result, for the first time, the public has been provided with a set of statistically robust tools for evaluating wetland conditions which have been vetted for use nationwide.
The indicators of condition and stress developed from the NWCA and used to report on national and regional condition may have applications beyond the NWCA report. In addition, the relative and attributable risks which are associated with the stressors and identified in the NWCA report may also provide useful tools for other resource management contexts.
Relative risk identifies the likelihood that wetlands will be in poor condition if a specific stressor is present at high levels.
Attributable risk identifies what the likelihood is that wetland condition will be improved, given the removal of that stressor. The process of sampling, indicator development, and risk analysis thus offers a template which could be adapted to assess condition at other scales, given the appropriate dataset. We see at least five broad categories or applications which would lend themselves to the use of the NWCA template: 1. Ecological restoration, either through regulatory requirements or through voluntary efforts.
Every restoration effort, regardless of its goals, needs to have an objective means of evaluating the success of its outcome. Within regulatory programs, success is often measured against performance standards, such as percent plant coverage, percent invasive species, or animal use of the restored area. These types of measures are designed to be easily measured on the ground and more importantly, in the case of a permit requirement enforceable.
These measures, however, do not have a common standard against which to measure improvement—either in terms of ecological function or condition.
By comparing the post-restoration condition against the baseline pre-restoration condition, we can measure whether the restoration actions improved the condition.
Measures of lift are currently estimated using largely functional assessment tools. While the desire in restoration is to improve the functional capacity of target wetlands, current estimates of function are often qualitative and generally do not measure function directly e. The NWCA condition measures, however, do measure biological condition based on plant community assemblage.
They are calibrated regionally using data from a randomly selected subset of the regional resource and thus reflect the range of condition of wetlands within the region. Consequently, wetland restoration sites can be evaluated for change in condition both before and after the treatment, but their condition can also be described against the continuum of wetland condition within the region.
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Furthermore, by looking at the ecological lift achieved over time at restored sites, it may be possible to identify how much of the target wetland improvement is achieved over time. It can also be used to provide objective evidence to determine whether mitigation proposals are adequate to compensate for losses due to permitted activities. The tools developed for NWCA, therefore, offer measures to not only track the success of an individual effort, but also evaluate the success and endpoints of wetland mitigation within the program.
Impact assessment. These measures provide possible ways of documenting baseline and potential future conditions under different proposed alternatives. This can be useful for planning purposes when investigating options for minimization of wetland impacts associated with large-scale development projects.
Post-project monitoring could also use the NWCA tools to determine whether wetlands experienced secondary impacts which changed condition, something that is generally not measurable using most currently existing assessment tools.
Development of watershed-wide restoration strategies.
Information on the condition of wetlands in a watershed coupled with information on levels of achievable success for wetland restoration which can be developed from the abovementioned program level of analysis can be used to help identify targets for watershed-wide restoration, as well as provide baselines against which the success of planned restoration may be evaluated.
It would also allow for the assessment of wetland resources over a much larger geographic area and provide a means to characterize the condition of watersheds relative to one another. Prioritizing wetlands for restoration within a chosen watershed. In addition to measurements of condition, the NWCA reports on the extent of physical, chemical, and biological stressors, and identifies which are most likely to be associated with poor condition of a wetland through the concepts of relative and attributable risk see Herlihy et al.
These tools can therefore be used to identify which stressors are present in a watershed targeted for restoration, and which actions i. Consequently, decision-making can be better informed as to where the greatest benefits are likely to be obtained from among available restoration options for different watershed planning efforts, such as Total Maximum Daily Load TMDL development and implementation.
The condition tools and indicators can measure the level of progress for the action, as well as the actual level of improvement in condition. Reporting on the status of water quality standards of wetlands. Section d of the CWA requires State and Tribes to list waters not meeting water quality standards and to prioritize those waters for TMDL development or other management.
States and Tribes would be able to use the NWCA indicators to meet the requirements to report biennially on the current condition of waters including wetlands in their integrated reporting process.
The assessment tools developed in the NWCA now make this reporting possible.Information on demographical pattern of the butchers, herd size and composition of slaughtered animals as well as the reasons for slaughtering were assessed through the use of a structured questionnaire. Some welfare assurance schemes insist that transport times to slaughter are limited.
Environmental Protection Agency. Religious activists in the country have argued that the halal and kosher methods of killing animals are less painful and more humane.
Radicals passed 3 Reconstruction plans in , established coherent plan ii. Attributable risk identifies what the likelihood is that wetland condition will be improved, given the removal of that stressor.
These types of measures are designed to be easily measured on the ground and more importantly, in the case of a permit requirement enforceable. Recommended codes for halal and kosher slaughtering involve cutting off the carotid arteries, jugular vessels, esophagus and trachea in the throat, without any specific reference to pre-slaughter stunning.
The Chicago District uses similar measures to evaluate success in compensatory mitigation projects and also to determine the level of improvement achievable in compensatory mitigation Blackburn personal communication.