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OjIv SOME BLUNDERS OF INDIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH P. N. OAK, M A., LL., B. Pnildtnt, Initiate for BenritlDg World History HIND! N j Road, wildlifeprotection.info " r. Some Blunders Of Indian Historical Research by P.N. Oak. The author, in this book incites some blunders of India historical Research. This is Oak's most popular. Historical Research P N Oak. Download Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research pdf · Read Online Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research pdf .

Bui not only is the burial date not mco- rumed but even the pciod during wh. Having been the umpteenth and one among at least 5. This shows that the tuNcqwrn. M6 Shahjaban was no patron of art. Had he beeo one he w ould not have had the heart to chop. A dead body does not need any escape route and a subterranean one at that.

Onl Like every other nupicioui aspect of the faj the pCTjMcrfcflnstruciioniivirionily staled to be 10, His maserpeot helps us foui'Square to refute the traditional ibeory It hfli all along been out contention tbnt Jai Singh's hereditary palace was taken over from him and Mumtaz buried in il to me time after tier death. We fully accept them.

While on the one hand he compelled the Rajas and Maharajas to pay for the alterations to the palace, owned by one of their own kith and kin, that it may be converted into a tomb, he made the labourers and artisans toil on a meagre ration. That is why the work dragged on -at a snail's pace over a long period.

Since after J5J " i hetrtious name plucked from among those common 7k Ir. Even Shahjahan. But the accounts of those future, are neverthtlmtrue. We accept them as such. They fully support our view thai Shahjahan.

Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research - P N Oak

He used that sombre occasion as u lever to force Jaitingh out of his ancestral palace. Mumtaz was buried in a stripped, cold palace robbed of all its cosily trapp- ing! And it were not merely the trappings, mentioned above, which were lemoved but also the Rajput Peacock Throne which was kepi amidst those resplendent surroundings. The Peacock Throne which was earned to Iran was, therefore, not a Mogul heirloom but a very ancient sacred, Indian Kshatnya throne which might even date back to Anangpal of the lih Century A.

The i palace was the focal centre or those towiumipi. The Government can earn a hanasonM. The fraud hn bees to consummate thai generation! The new light thrown on the o. Will our historians rise to the occasion or the public cry out for iheir right to be told the truth!

What passes for the history of the Muslim period in India today is 99 per cent or the stuff that Arabian Nights is made of. The age-old argument of believers in the to-called Indc- Saraccmc architecture, that the Taj is the culmination of that 5ty lo no longer holds good since the Taj itself is only a Rajput palace converted into a Muslim tomb. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Alio, nal design was definitely of Hindu origin.

It is now called tie main mosque. Since all extant mediaeval monuments throughout India, even though of pre-Muslim origin, have been blatantly credited to this or that alien Muslim ruler it is no wonder if the Faich- pur Sikri royal township also suffered the same fate.

Bull here is voluminous evidence to prove that Fatehpur Sikri was a Rajput township encompassing all Hi extant redstone monu- ments, constructed several centuries before Akbar. Though this would be a fitting topic for a separate book yd in view of the amount of evidence available a rapid survey of bat evi- dence should give the lay reader and rescachcr alike enough grounds o scour out from bis mind the traditional notion that Fatehpur Sikri was built by Akbar or for that matter by any alien Muslim overlord.

The main points of ihe evidence may be summed up as under! A number of Muslim chronicles pertaining to the reigns of rulers preceding Alcbar allude to this township as "Fathpore", or as "Sikri" and even as "Fathpore Sikri 1 ". Shelat and published by The Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, carries facing page 82, a painting captioned "Humayun's troops entering Faihpore". Here it may be remembered lb at Humayun was Akbar's father.

The painting is clear proof that Faihpore Sikri existed before Akbar, t 3. Babar states that Ihe batik was fought within view of the hillock. The caller has recorded that the touuship was in ruins. Even assuming that the township was built by Akbar, when we see its magnificent monuments stand- ing intact for alt these centuries in all their splendour, as though Ihey were buili only yesterday, it surpasses one's imagi- nation how the township, presumed to have been completed in could have been in ruins within 23 years when the Englishman visited Jahangir there.

This piece of testimony makes a dear that Akbar. Had Fatehpur Sikri been a brand-new township completed around A. Had Fatehpur Sikri been a new town- ii would never have compared a with ancient Agra— lean not without ipecificalty mentioning Patehpur Sikri to be a newly founded town. It rs also a specifically Indus aoimat. This proves Ibat far from constructing th l Hithipol gate of Fatehpur Sikri Akbar had the clepham, beheaded and their gracefully arching trunks hammered Similar vandalism may be noticed inside many Fateh- pur Sikri mansions where peacock plumes on walls have been chiselled away The entire township with its stables for horses Ashva- ihala and elephants Gajaihala and intricately ornamental Hindu workmanship and motifs ii in the traditional Rajput style.

This shows that alien Muslim noblemen could not occupy those ornately carved Hindu buildings with an easy religious conscience, Use so-called Salim Chisty tomb is an ornately carved Hindu marble temple Inside and out. From this a native principality ,n the aanuy R 8 " tbani tract is kno. In the records of Akbar's reign there ia not even a scrap of paper proving that the Fatchpur Sikri township was ever comtnrjsioned, designed, materials ordered, money paid to labourers or any day-to-day account kept.

Had Akbar really ordered mob a huge township to be constructed huge piles of records or at least some tattered bits should have been avail- able in the Mogul record captured by the British. Contemporary Jesuits at Akbar 's court have recorded that cot a stone-cutter's chisel was ever heard or any building material piles seen and that, therefore, the city if at all must have been "built oversight as if by magic for which stones dressed to the required size must have been brought readymade from the distant quarries".

That a whole, city couJd be built overnight without I he slightest trace- of any material lying. Apparently taken in by the gullible talk of Akbar's fawning courtiers whose language ihe Jesuits could hardly follow, the latter have made this naive noting in their mediaeval simplicity and bclier in magic. But for us now that noting is of immense significance in seeing through the medieval game of falsification of Indian history. He lived ""d,?. H Muslim BktoiW. U one of the major end glaring tragedte.

U ii absurd o explain this away appreciation of the valour of the valiantly in tbe defence of Chit tor fort as Akbars prince who against his army, T h flames were of earlier Rajput princes and the fort was many centuries before Akbar ascended the throne. Haifa kg fha built Agra fort ft a twin of the Delhi Red Fort. There is no auth tic documentary evidence to sustain the claim that they nT built by Mogul emperors. In believing that claim hbionant nave made a grievous error of judgment.

They Save fix terrace roofs and no domes or minarets. Elophmt taigesex. Muslim monarch; forts featuring elephant images. MheRed chain of ituHcem Agra to.. Ports ut Delhi and Agra esistea around A. This statement bristles wilh anomalies and , s therefore obvious lie.

Moreover such a project is under the constant tu Tjtioi? Then again, ifi Q , had really bungled they would have been publicly impaled oa ttakes which was Jahangir's usual mode of punishing those who routed his royal ire. Jahongir introduced a uvd in his Memoirs claiming that he ordered a special tomb rather. And because that canard would be exposed by 'gnsand motifs Jabangir tried to cover it up syiib SfiJ thai the workmen made n mess of it.

Such hanky ibcut even Akbar't tomb is glaring proof that the tombs luslsm sovereigns are all commandeered or captured ETduM ft r eBt a i? Ibtch escaped demolition v, ere later used as ral cham- bers This will be apparent from thai very odd t. U Khu. River Ghats Demolished There is another aspect or ancient Allahabad which has remained hidden from the public because historians have failed to delect facts.

It has been often wondered how the holiest of the holy confluence of the three rivers at Allahabad has no jthats for pilgrims to bathe on even though it has been an in- variable Hindu custom to construct magnificent ghats even in minor places of pilgrimage.

A popular myth is that since the. Ganges changes its bed no ghats could be constructed. This It a facile explanation tn such cases ghats are constructed at the farthest limits at which the river flows. That is not, therefore, a satisfactory explanation. U was. Karciavati and Ashaval. Its history extends to. As was the practice with Muslim invaders Ahmcid Shah used captured Rajput temples and palaces u cnoaqucs and tombs. The thickly populated ;',rea of the ancient walled town of Ahmcdahad is still known as "Bhadra".

As such it was impossible that the ruler constructed mosques galore all over the town for such a small section of his iub ecti. Neither could he have got the mosques and tombs done in the Hindu temple style. Juina Maijid m-. Ornamental stones which fell off the stormed temples can be seen scattered in the vicinity.

They only prove that Rani Sipri's and Rupmat. Alongside the monuments that are being used as mosques and tombs, are a number of others which lie neglected and hall buned In the soil. Thai architectural skill, since the so called mosques all previous, Hindu buildinp.

A few yards away the MKltniy of that famous temple complex. But the saoctu- ary has now been converted into a mosque.

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This conversion of a famous ancient Hindu temple, has been admitted, though only indirectly, by ibe Government of India's Archaeology Department by putting up a "protected monument signboard there. Yet an atcUacolog. This is apparent Mr.

Asbok Kumar Mujumdar's remark quoted earlier. Turks and Arabs. That city was the capital of a flourishing empire in ancient times. As such il bad many temples and palaces. Most of these now stand converted mo mosques. It was un. One is sure to discover that they were ancieoi Rajput temples tod palaces.

This is a Sinikriinamc. It is so ancient a site that its origin cannot be established with any degree of certainty, Being a small locality all its extant monuments should have existed since pre-Mutlim times. Later, durin Muslim occupation the Rajput palaces and temples were co verted info tombs and mosques. The Archaeology Department signboard on Hosha Shah s tomb admits that the building used io be a great Hmd shrine where a great annual fair used to be held.

H used to a Shiva Temple known as Neclkanlheswar Mahadeva. Governor of Mandu under emperor Akbar, These two instances should be enough io show tw others of identical construction falsely ascribed io various Mnrita rulcts, were built by earlier Rajput rulers. First of a I.. U- mediaeval moouraflOW origiomlly Hindu bear t. Muslim Rajpui origin. They have been falsely credited to alieo Muslim monarch!. Thm tbc Adbai-din-ka-Zopda is the extant part of Vishat- dco's seminary has been already established.

The Taragadh— a Sanskrit name— is a fort of immemorial antiquity, as old as the Ajaya-Meru township. The mosque half-way up the mountain track was a Hindu temple prior to the capture of the fort by the Muslims. The mosquc-cum-tomb on lop, in the Fort was a temple Brahmins still get a share in the annual offerings by Muslim pilgrims at the shrine. The two lamp posts also testify that it was a goddess temple. Bangles, a symbolic offering in Hindu worship, are still offered at the altar during the annual Muslim festival.

The Moinuddin Chisti tomb ties amidst the ruins of the fortifications at the foot ofTaragadh. As has been observed earlier Muslim fakirs used to occupy captured and ruined Hindu mansions. When the fakirs died they were buried at the place where they lived. Moinuddin Chisti the entire monument is pari of a huge Hindu mansion which came under Muslim occupation through conquest and conversion and was not built for St.

Moinuddin Chisti. The term Mecca derives from the San. Saalte wh. The ancient Hindu nte of eiwiim. India und Central Asia. Manuscripts of Narada Smriti and many other ancient Sans- krit texts have been dug up from the sands of Asia Minor. That idea and association nu r! Bijapur is a Sanskrit name and signifies a very ancient and flourishing city.

It was captured and ruled over by the Muslim Adil Shahi dynasty. Around that shrine lie scattered and buried innumerable Hindu images. A few of the escavated ones have been collected in 4 small museum in a nearby building.

The acoustic gimmick built-in in the dome which reverbera- te! It was to reverberate those sound! Fnr an origmal sepulchre no such gimmick is ever thought of because k soul bat to rest in peace undisturbed. The ornamental stone dressing or Iho Got Gumbaz itself has apparently been peeled off so thai the soul of the buried nonarch may rest in peace. The huge Taj Bavdl and the massive walls around Bijapur town are all of prc-Musliro origin.

The Adil Shahs only captur- ed the place and ruled over it. They destroyed a good many buildings and built none ; that is why too there are no palaces in their names.

So the very fact that spacious apart- ments in mediaeval monuments arc speciously and nebulously palmed off on gullible lay visitors, and unsuspecting scholars, as Madarsas is further proof that the mediaeval Indian monu- ments which contain many features inexplicable to Islamic usage are in fact prc-Muslim Rajput monuments- The name Madarsa sticks to those buildings because they were Vedic schools. Elliot and Prof.

I to Blunder No. DS w er. Francis of Assisi and Abou ben Adhem. Babur was an elegant toper Attar's two younger sons died in early manhood from chronic alcoholism, and their elder brother was saved from the same fate by a strong const itutioo, not by virtue. When captured, Kamran was subjected CO real torture Smith remarks p.

He also used to take liberal helpings of horrifying combinations or both, drugs and drinks- Akbar 's son Jahangir records "My father whether in his cups or sober moments always called me 'Sftckhu BabiT '. This clearly implies that Akbar was very often drunk.

Smith observes p. Mis son Jahangir has recorded that Akbar could neit read nor write but used to pose as though he was very learn It a not 10 much a question of Akbar's posing as ofotheri' humouring bim into the belief that all that ho said or did wai the outcome of profound wisdom, What else could they do when faced with a cruel and unscrupulous, alt-powerful monarch!

Porter and Intemperance Each irogly can bring ruin What theu when all combine. Though there arc more than 5.

Id Vol. Ill of Atbarnama. From thence they send their request to the officers of the palace, after which those who arc eligible sic are permitted to enter the harem. On page a? Smith referring to Akbar's extreme weakness for women says "Early in January Akhar moved io Delhi, While he was passing along a road a man standing JQ the balconj of a roadside building discharged an arrow which injured Akbar in the shoulder He was then engaged in a scheme of marrying ladies belonging to Deli i families, and had compelled one Sheikh to divorce his Me in bis favour.

The attempted assassination.. Akbar's Cruelty In cruelty Akbar should rank among the greatest sadists of biitory. Vincent Smith says p. S ovct a number of generai,o D cvl? Smith, Akbar coward , y fciiu of hc after the battle of Panipat Akbar'a victorious force, "marched straight to Delhi, which opened its gates to Akbar, who made his entry in state.

Agra also passed into his posses- sion. Immense treasures were taken with the family nf Hemu, whose aged father was execuled. In suppressing Khan Zaman's revolt his confidant Mohammad Mirak "wu tortured for five successive days on tbe execution ground. Each day he was trussed up in a wooden frame and placed before one of the elephants. The elephant caugbi him id his trunk and squeezed him and flung bim from one tide to the other Abul Fail relates this horrid barbarity without a word of censure" p, 58 , After the capture of Cbittor, says Smith p.

When the Miraa was defeated. When Daud overcome with thirst asked for water "they filled his slipper with water and brought it to him.

Smith's account of Akbar's reign contains numerous instances of Akbar's perfidy. On page 57 he says '"An extraordinary incident which occurred in April while the royal camp was at Thancsar, the famous Hindu place of pilgrimage to the north of Delhi, t'.

In ihe fight 1?. At a lime when the sides were locked in battle and it was not easy to distinguish between Rajputs allied with Akbar, and those opposing him, Badauni fighting on Akbar's side, asked Akbar's commander where to shoot so that be may hit only the enemy. The commander replied it did not matter, he could merrily shoot in the midst of the Rajput armies and whoever was killed, it was a gain to Islam.

With thai assurance, says Badauni, he had no difficulty and be started shooting with gay abandon secure m the belief thai no precautions were necessary. After the capture of Chiitor, says Col. Tod, "Akbar defaced every monument that bad been spared by the earlier conquerors. Akbir was long ranked with Shihabuddin, Allauddin and other inmrumenti of destruction and with every just claim, and like these he constructed a number pulpit or reading desk in i mosque for the Koran from the deity of Eklinga the hereditary pod ofthe Rajput " This gives the lie to the assiduously loitered view that Akbar was tolerant towards the Hindus and fwpeeted their deiiies, "In or about A.

Akbar sitting motionless as a statue As Miran Bahadur did reverence thrice and was advancing, a Moghui officer caught him by the head and threw him down forcing him to perform complete prostration He was held in custody and asked lo send an order in writing to ihe Tort commandant to surrender The latter refused to surrender and sent his son to ask for the king's release, The youth, asked whether his father was willing to surrender the fort, gave a spirited retort on which he was stabbed.

The fort commander, informed that bis son had been done to death, addressing the garrison to defend the ran to the last man.

Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research - P N Oak

This instance will prove that nothing was too mean for Akbar and that his perfidy could stoop to abysmal depths. Smith remarks p. The campaign of was intended to destroy the Rana. Xavjer writes, says Smith p. Akbar posed "as a Prophet, wishing it to be understood thai he works miracles through healing the sick by means of the water in which be washes his feet. Badauni, to say that this special type of humiliation was reserved by Akbar only fo r Hindus. Says Badauni "if other than Hindus came, and wished to become disciples at any sacrifice, His Majesty reproved them.

Repression in several forms being daily routine, as observed above, tfcere always used to be a crowd of women and children at Akbar's court gate. But wily nobles interpreted this to the Jesuits at Akbar's court as their coming to seek Akbar's bless- inp as a high priest, "Blessings" tbey certainly sought, but not in the tejBc in which it has been cunningly interpreted. The women and children louglit some relief from hellish torture and tyranny let loose on them.

Akbar 'i having married many Rajput women is often trotted out ai a glorified instance of his spirit of so-called conciliation and tolerance. Thii is adding insult to injury and pulling a premium on lechery. It has been amply illustrated above that Akbar considered hit entire realm as a huge harem, and that be sought I he women of all he vanquished, through coercion and compulsion.

Thai was one of his devices to make the humili- ation of his vkli mi complete, Dragging Hindu women into tbejr harems had been a pcrnicioui tradition with all invaders. Such was the resentment that everybody felt that nume- rous persons from his own sod lahangir downwards attempted to murder Akbar.

Smith deicribcs on page "Throughout the year the prince Sail m continued to hold court at Allahabad and to maintain royal slate as king of the provinces which he had usurped. On page Smith tells the reader, "Akbar usualiy rebellion somewhere or the other on his hands and the recorded outbreaks of disorder in the provinces, summari? Akbar's Murders On page Smith tells us of historian Wheelers assertion that Akbar kept a paid official whose duty it was to poiira people who incurred Akbar's fatal displeasure- According to tome historians Akbar died of poison pills he mistakenly took but had intended for Man Singh.

In a footnote on page Smith lists persons who were secretly eieculcd or poisoned by Akbar: Secret execution of Kamran's son at Gwalior, The Ikbal- nama expressly states that the latter wag put to death hf Abul Fail in pursuance of Akbar's orders, 3 The equallv amnicious death of Masum Faranghudi. Describing this on page Smith says "The deceased left in her bouse a large treasure and a will directing that it should be divided among her male descendants.

Todar Mai, was associated with devising a peraici. About him Smith remarks p. Ad mittmg the justice of Blochmann 's verdict, lean only say that the other poets of Muhammaden India must be worth very little.

He was supposed to have been given a Jagu which he never enjoyed. The much extolled wit. Alt such suicides by Hindus have been represent- ed in contemporary Muslim records, as having been committed in a fit of madness.

To an orthodox Hindu in those days, when idols were not to be touched, even by persons in the same household without a bath and holy attire, summary removal of all idols by Muslim iconoclasts was a mortifying sacrilege. The demolition or Prayag's magnificent ghais out.

But from the very fact thai they slammed their doors against Akbar it ti clear that his entry into Banaras must have beat occasion- ed by lecherous and rapacious motives. Slavery la Its Worst Torms We have already seen that Akbar insisted on complete prcs- tratioa by all and sundry before him- He made people drink the water in which he washed his feet. He also made people drink water on which he had breathed.

Ralph Filch, a contem- porary English traveller has recorded that William Lcedcs. While leaving, therefore, the only boon be asked was to take with him a family of Russian slaves father, mother, two sons and cerlam dependenii who had been among Mohommadens so long as to be Christians in name onlv. Rented horror. If we may judge sayi Smith from the slovenly way m wlncn he treats the tremendous calamity of we may infer that the famine of was serious, h docs not seem lo be mentioned or even alluded to by other chroniclers "The famine which began in 1 and lasted three or four yean until equalled in ils horrors the accession yeai and excelled the visitation by reason of its longer duration.

Smith dwmi. Descriptions to ,! Let us talc the instance of the Jaipur royal family which bid 10 surrender many of its daughters 10 the Mogul rulers. An account of how the Jaipur rulers were coerced into tending their daughters to he Mogul harem is found on paget6l to 63 of Dr. Srivastava's account of Akbar's cap- ture of tie Jaipur princess, is a typical instance.

The rol story of how Akbar terrorized the royal house of lipur to pan with the. These lurid details put the whole episode in- to bold relief.

It is well known that in the 16th Century a royal wedding was an elaborate affair lasting tor months. And yet Akbar had no more time to spare than a day's wayside halt for this pTcudo-marriage. History f s Wple. FromSmiU'j account it is cleat that Akbar deserves to be ranked witb the world's most hated rulers. Akbar the Great Mogul by Vincent Smith. Akbar the Great, Vol. Ashirbadi Lai Stivuiavi. Akbaroama by Abul Fazl, Bibliotbeca Indica series.

Annals of Rajasthan by Co!. Warnings of this kind have been uttered by discerning and serious historians even before but have not been heeded.

For instance the late Sir H. Ellioi says in the Preface to his eight volume critical study of mediaeval chronicles that the History of the Muslim era in India, is an 'Impudent and interested fraud. Surendranatb Sen, a sectional presi- dent, similarly observed: The chroniclers weie mainly interested in the court and the military aristocracy. Some of them deliberately sought ilic patronage of the ruling sultan and the principal nobles. S,N Sen then wear on to quote Dr.

Their other drawback was that they wrote 1V l. A proper reappraisal will show that there is absolutely no evidence of the kind as will stand in a court of law to prove thai Akbar built any of ihe forts, towns, palaces and canals scribed to him.

Let ui take Alberuni. Alberuoi's work 1. He has not done so. He oaly mentions bim as Amir Mahmud white the preface of OrkaM authors used to attain the height of absurdity in the court of Mogul emperors of Delhi.

The manner in which the author mentions the dead king is cold in the extreme, the words of praise are meagre and stiff. That it was not at all agaicst the moral principles of Alberuni to write such dedications to princes is ibown by two other publications of his with dedica- tions whicb exhibit the customary Byzantynism of the tiro o In the preface of the Chronology of Ancient Nations translated and etc.

Mr, rf. An unexpected visit by the latcer to Abul J asl gave him an excellent opportunity 10 charge him with duplicity- On entering the house he found 40 writers busy in copying commentaries on the Quran. Badaum says 1 Abul Fazl when once in favour of the emperor officious as he was and lime serving, openly Faithless, continually Itudying Hit Majesty 1! Thai Akbar himself rega rded A b: Had he been the Just and great ruler that we have been wrongly made to believe he should have arraign Jahingir with ibe charge.

Obviously he was anothet Nero. In the latter part of the above quoted sentence Abul Fazl emphasizes the atten- tion that Akbar used to bestow on his liquor cellar. He coufd neither read nor write a word. Some women of rank obtain permission to remain ibere for a whole month Wc shall now examine the Jahangirnama which purports to bcftcuccountofhisrcign written by Jahangir himself.

From the beginning to end Sir H-M. At tbc very outset Sir H. Sit Hto Elliot says that those have been mechanically repeated by r j alu? Thus between themselves these cbrotu and memoirs provide staggering evidence of the nigbtmamh cstcm and depth of corruption that prevailed under all ruler, from Kutuboddra to Bahadursbah Zafar.

Elliot hv citing the classic instance of Mohobbal Khan, a military Lirflandcr of Jahangir. These observations of the British scholars reduce Ihc veracity and reliability of ihc jtohangirnoma almost to a cipher- Let us now turn our attention to Bitdshuhnama or Ihc account or the reign ofShahjaban written at btsinttance by Italia Abdul Hamitl of Lahore.

Thii was done because lahangir's version eon wined vrlcaod disparaging remarks about Shahjahan since the lancr had all along proved 10 be not only a problem child and a wayward ion bur also a traitor by raising the banner of revolt ignnsr hit reigning father. Given ibis fact does it need to be tirawrjibat the account of Shahja ban's own reign written at bis bidding by Mulla Abdul Hamid cannot but be sham. Tarikh'i-Firoahahi purporting to bean account of Sultan Fu-ez Shah Tugblak's reign written by Shami-i-Shim i unique among the mediaeval Muslim chronicles for its puerile disregard of a!

Rumour-mongers always ascribe such infor- mation to somebody. All these canals, serais, forts, palaces and towns which a Ferozshah, Sher Shah or Akbar claims to have constructed existed centuries before him. A more diligent and intelligent iludy should convince any dispassionate and discerning reader that the very raison d'etre which brought these alien invaders pressing and hurtling down on the Indian sub-continent was exploitation, plunder and massacre.

The Tarikhi-Ferozshahi and Futubat-e-Firozshahi contain enough proof of this. The account contains absurd statements describing how the Sultan's victorious" armies continued to fall back while the "defeated" enemy followed them in hot pursuit.

Throughout that Sir H. John Dowson. SHU pemorlal. These chronicles haying been written with ulterior motives, any historical material ihey migbi contain is mly incidental. As such these chronicles were never intended even by their very authors to be taken seriously. Posterity has erred in over-looking this primary objective which impelled the writing of these fake chronicles.

Unwarranted reliance having been placed on these counterfeit chronicles and memoirs it is no wonder that our mediaeval historical texts contain unsuspected blunders. It h not my contention that mediaeval Muslim chronicles and rulers' memoirs be condemned out of band.

As stressed above they may be useful for adverse inferences if for nothing else. Bvcn fake documents many a lime provide. Such a confession al appraisal from a Muslim professor of tbe diehard Aligarh tradition is a rare phenomenon.

Ionic, jtifluencwi by the W T. J d bv lb c Islamic Culture Board. Sbvs Prof. Nizami, a psychobistonan alone can analyze con- tradictory situations and motivations to arrive at the "historic f ICl " A classic poser for a historian is to what extent Akbar wa5 guided by considerations for Rajput ladies of his harem in adopting vegetarian habits, while revelling in animal hums enjoined by the "Qubusnamab".

Historians' accounts can't be properly interpreted unless t reader first understands them, their psychology, their predilec- tions and above all the duality of their minds, observes Prof. For instance, Abu Al-Fail. Prof Nizimi's conclusions are alto b- acconnti of British historians. But it does not go far enough. In that it still slicks to the type. He should have added that those chronicles have misrepre- w captured Hindu edifices and townships as having beer. That history must be coneoctco c u u n k.

Mcbam cd and pre-Christian history of f '? H, D du. H l8 hscn. TaimorUng confesses to this in his memoirs Autobiography. Sbardul meaning the sun and the tigcr-wbicb is exactly what Ihc sculpture depicts. India's alien rulers did not have ihc fabnJou necessary io order stupendous buildings, All the vnata"! Persians, Turks, Arabs.

Kazaks, Uzbeks and Abvuimaiif, and of dtvtrse strata from princes to slaves caul rt all display the same vigour and the same penchant in order. ThTwiU be nothing but quixotic because it will involve a huge f effort, liibe and money.

Moreover even ibe hypothc'ical rebuilding of thc Kutub Mtntr from Ihe debris of the previous, dismantled towtsr would be an impossibility because most of the stones damaged and chipped off in thc process of dismantling would jiol fall into place as before. It is common exptrteti"e that in the case of a shop- front shuttered up with wooden planks unless the planks are carefully numbered tbey do not fall into nlace.

One very important consideration is that while India has had a very elaborate and masterly Sbilpashastra U. The invading Muslims had none. Wc musi. Another point to be noted is that all: PadmoraJ observes OI. Diwakar ii is staled About the Whispering Gallery that M To the north is an octagonal chamber which lecrni to have not been used at all. Moreover the unused chamber is an indication that the use of the Whis- pering Gallery as a Muslim tomb was an afterthought in which no uk could be found for every chamber of the earlier Hindu building.

Muslim architecture of one country differs from the Muslim architecture of another. If Mr. Research Director. He carried away Hindu masons from Mai hum to build hi j mosques and palaces at Ghazaj and the HiDda architect built the isolated manars at Gba?

Bendre a noted historian observed in the paper fta. Sholapur, an ancient city. They were thai " M ' 5rt? Patrick Geddes to say about Cooicevaram 'Here is not simply a city made monumental by great temples and rich and varied by innumerable minor ones ; what rejoices me is to find the realization of an exceptionally wtll'sroarwd and comprehensive town-plan ; and this upon a teak of spacious dignity ; combined with individual and artis- hc freedom to which I cannot name any equally surviving parallel..

Dowsoo, Vol" Ito 1. Thus betweontbcmselve. Pn aad Jupiter InKendra Thesearc Wlumrever "toRbmnl!

That eventtook placemorechan thrte hundredofterLord Buddha'sdemise. Foocoolet 3, 4,edition Jtundrcd 'c-1 ra , Ourtn1 lltflllh dornroauonforthoooxlycaraWeAtornscholara' tmm11urcmcdloevol concop11 about time and spaco,tho orl1ln of the co.

Tbt rub,.. SaaQrk Loeaa by T. Be bas not done 10, and the terms in Sachau, London , he tliOh wltb abuodaot praise the priace of Hyrcania or 1urjan, Sboms Almuli, 01ho ""' 'dwarf by the aide of giant Mahmud.

Tho otudled or tbe oeaJeci of Mabmud comes out mo,. Tbo P'"faoe ofhll C'" Jl ChaDd A Co. Sacbau, Prormor in tho Uolvenity or Bttlia. Sachaua wo '. L oo thin,. WI be auacks cbe Arabs. Sachau adds "To Mahmud the Hlndus were infidels, to be despatched to bell as they refuted to be From the exw,cts quote-d cbove we arrivo at cbo following. That Albcruni'a asstrtions nerd 10 be uamioed with the utmost caut1on and disc: Tblt was but natural alltbclr cneraica were dissiraled In loot, drlokia oriJCI.

I'IJCiion a. Those became I. It is, therefore. All lk o. That FirdcuJttoo tbouab be bas no1 wriuea oa lodia. Sachau says in the ume Jft acctpaJe viii ' lmmortaf Firdausr had to fty ill diaauiseto.. Ide tbo doom or beina trampled 10 death by elephaou Attra. U t4 ,v. StVC l t f tbc mere mott cnv 11 rukrf in '"': Incident ia uid to have prod.. II aa he"'"' and aimc.. Mit ltlntf ', tod lbJI ftom lbat vantage Clo.

Fnl's own coofsion ro sbow I bar timc-te: Ful UyJ "As fortuo FazJ wbo uied ro coo. Thio nih 1nd Kho1ar. TbJl Akbar bimsclf r. Fazl as no m ba d rrr oretbJaa d an. Y "'' e lo beheve be should have arrai--' "''b the cbarge.

Ao -dtolll This ". Ia Abul Ful' 1 b,oar. Jtcal P. Mort over we musr here recoil lbe fact rhal Akbar's desccodaoiJ and -slon borb being ioveocrate boozers be could not be 1 dill'ercor from them especially when we have the above reinforcing testimony from his own chrooicler Abul l'azl. Ia Aln d.. Y" t Pll. L tfhttfiiC- ffc. Of ' ann'butcs It should not toke lotcUisent 'I.

II should have boca atiPOl eomple where 1 tnigbcy emperor! OW lodJed In royal comfort. From dteocc lbcy " od their requtst to lbe officen or tbe Pliler, trocr ,.

Omeo of rank ObtJii O pcrmissioo tO for a wbolc month. This leadr to IDS ' ' "" 37, 38 eta. Slll t! D lhcte 11 thoia who have r l "mt c: I all Musltm monarc. D rna n of whom there was no dtartb. Q aod chi h rcs- cdve p: We shall now examine the laboogirooma wb,cb. Ellloc on cbc edited by Prot John OoW10n are an cxcc11cat cmocal atudy: Elliot's obsernttons underlloo tbe face tbac Jabaoalr' mcmoiB Contconporary accounls SJ cak or lobuoslr having lio many a time In a state of eoma because of excessive drug ood drink addicclon.

Jahaogir Posthumous Papers or Elliot edu.. John Oowson. I lw dJSliU. Thus betweon tbcmselve. Ill Orienta l l! I molllary 1 mmandcr of Jahnair. These obtcrvatloos ot tbc Brioitlt schoton redutc the verltny and rcliablhty or tbc Jahamm almost to 1 dphcr.

Lcr us l'OW turn our aucolioo to Badshabo: Wilted oonrettcred cu oyment of the deceased's property, Su H M. Elhot deal- loa ""'h tbc chroolt: Given Ibis rae! OUDI of Aft: Utnle dhrcprd o! II canoot or billorical wriring, a ad reck ll lt or Abut Ful'. L Hamld"oth. Ia quick Jbor' 11 le h. Abut Ful aod Fai,i. This amounct to a eonfess,on that bis record1np Su ta - "M. These assertions are like.

TarithlFtrozsbab1 and fulubaleFirozsba. Throughout 1b11 I. Sir K. Ellior's Posrbumous Papttl dcalinl wub lllo -r;utb Ic "L. Tbis Is: A ntler. S 'toftdet pillra 10 be ;: UJ he d..

Or where tbe cbrooicle1i purport to b been wrineo by tho rulcra thcmsclvu or at their biddoag they n: Uowarrooted reltanee hovlos beeo placed oo these couoterfeat chronu: What is in Leaded 10 be conveyed 11 tht lhty far from truthful records.

At 11a1e tbc! I he ndtrs bavioa If mcdra.. Olbtr M.. Nzamo'a omtrlt CUI of lbt bolts r h laJina. I be I hh CCDtury be: Numl obs. Sy Prof. HUtoriaas aecourus cao't be properly fnterpntfd un1eu a 1 rcsdtr 6nt undemands tbem, their psycbolov. Nizami analysu that whenever Abu Fazl round bis itael! Clll lituatlon Muslim dynu1y In Asia bas found. Brhisb blllorlao, Vlnccnl Smilb observed lo his "fltllto,. Nitamo's appraisal! I n I bat it still Slicks 10 he t 'pioal mmtallty or a 1-! Sorocenic e llll Sinoe we have q- alltcd u lll put polo aDd Olber tombs and mos- tl'""' thc lallt.

SIIIcnuc lhe: IIQually but It by alo - ' - r , We would like t. Wllre ;ol lb. Taimorloog, AI Brruni and other atieos bavc coofcssed a rcerioa of wonder at seeing Indian river gbats and roagni6 ecot, towcrioz.. Mastery in seulpture presoppcses cerrain bibly develop- ed skills carefully nurtured and practised over o number of acneratio Had 1he invaders been really great buildtrt tbey ball lbeor own undy strctebu 10 buold on.

Tbcy oeod no bac locurred tbc odium and r isks or to O btr r DOt H-. Cl'uld ool h. DtC v. Soraccnlc lhcory of architecture ;. He will WOtk out the oo Thrdly, wbeo thc: Mads ctC-1' 00 rcn nd craflsmcn working oo a bul. An architect has to give tbc workmen a destan co: That myth was avelltcd bY Western aeholar unable to cxplaio wby allegodly monumc. Had they eommistiooed them they would bavc iosisad oo the buildings beioa cotirely io their own style.

In foci even the tombs and moS jue l! II" o.. Lit Su. The Moshm invaders betn of. Ab -'1 m s, szaks U y Wu ll lo Tb r mosques and all ro lbo b. But ,. No - 1hc pluub ro PcJc 0 ;. Then be would bavclo urnber 1be. Since the Kutub Minar lt a rouod struclurc 11t stones would be useless for t1 iq. II iJ bf. TO TR I! Moreover tbellllused chamber ia an indication that tho use or the Wbts- pcrlos Oaltcry as a MIUiim tomb was aftcrtbouabt rn wbicb oo.

In the boot TI! Mutlim architecture or oc couotry dilfers from the Muslim architecture or ano1ber. If Mr. Ssoskrat Uoweuity. Sbri V S.. Beadre 1 aored bll! I remember quue "'ell when I beaan aotll thould be p ac fcanBJls for rhc irrigation of the collolry.

The canals they P. V 'M rd and bum! No medlaew 1 t sa,.. Muslim captors only ed 1he Koron oo I be oaterior and plooced real or fake llllldt. For ancet when o fancied arove In Sbablrlad Simlltrly Tamtrlao's aravc ias. OILY rue 00 bl , He will ruso II will be ocrvous "' job ond run away. Domes and buildings wi1b decorative liont , and olber animals and tolus patterns are never IslamiC.

Buildiog1 witb three, five or simlar symmelfically placed domes 1te cever fslamtc. A building ludded with graves Is captured property. Buildings in ruins splattered with Isla moe wriclogs. Ploutllomht or dead potentates wi1hou1 corrcspondlng man11ons , re olher people's capcured properly.

KorAnc 01 other hlamlc in5Cripli.

Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research

OO or Chat odofiec, dlfitc Uld 10 ben mosque or mausoleum must never 1 ll. Sft flt""C' N 1e: M l1m or; ,. Fino oru cao ocvcr prosper In an atmosphere surcharged wnb bate, torlutc and massacres whieh were tbc hallmarks of Mushm rule to India. The few artists wbo eked out a precart- oos bvehbood by practlsiog painuoa and sculpture coottooed. Muslims do not k4n bow the" Allah looks like or bow their own prophet Mobamed looked like. Muslims arc disallowed from sccioa tbc r..

Far from 6. But io our owo timO. This peat transformation, degtada! We bur ol 11 onl C Ill " I uadotiQD of lndill tmcraeo 1 nm "'" ot tars pzior to blam. I - lu IUD As sucb the ao- qu": Soon lhetca! People bad to Bee ro rbe forem lor protection. Histones t ell us that before tbe Sl rl of Mu"im invasions or lndi! As areal blgbway wrvives only in name. Indians were driven their majettic maniiooJ 10 leek shelter in wild forests and They wcro ruthlessly ferreted ou1 or oeir ' ' e rodents and replil h is th.

Qnnot be made 8ood a row FiY: Those lands boa Sled of Verdant 6elds and buulo ulgardens In lhe pre. IJttOf lit: Equally lsoorant newamnq fluhed 1be 0 ewr.

Tba1 ooly meant tidyioa up S be had to wage. How can an era ro wbteh. The wlrolltpcnod un man br regarded u a harrowrn Mediaeval Hist or y of ndtan bould coovioc: Uot's profound observataoo It. Sir AM Elliot was unwittingly cheated tnto bcllevlna lht tbc Innumerable mcdraeval tombs and ' '! Tbcse key p.. ClatQU in Died 1 M llltaa raeva uahm chronicles tbat a ccna 1 n Wben tbcy ,. Tbose palaces and mansloot were captured from tllrlicr ltaJPil1 rvlcra.. Th1l Ia wby 1be.

It is historically and ocademiCIIIy obsord to.. Tbul So hod no.. The oame bold sood of tno,.. Claim in Mediat. Tbuo wu oot founded by "hmadbah but just cooqucrecl by b1m aod lo h: IIat bad. I G foci done was thftt an exll ntt anc1cnc township wna nmd. If thiJ not clearly uoduatood and ralle cl. Whal we bavc said above should help us to formulate ADt'lhcr rriociplc io understanding mtdiOtval Muslim chrooidu. A very gnpbic illusuation or the of elaims I found ID cbronicleo rclatiog to Sbcr.

Wtld c: Ao IDOidcnta u I or an alien MualliD lovestigatloos Ia that wherever be must be decmed ruler or oobleroao attaches to a bat earlier Ra put moou to be tbe datroyer a'ld captor o t Tbus wben a r- i!

J bel um at VerinJ II uouod tbo aourec of: These claims ore potently f1bc. Whea such ton ate crue ty was etog 1 galnsl most of tbe population could it be called a: The entire 3. Many current concepts of mediaeval hostory need to be completely rev! For Instance, it bas been. Secondly, just as the Western style- of architecture is currently In vogue all over tho wc;rld similarly during mediaeval times h wl.

Mohammad Ob-. U Tbit Wu lod;. Faile claim tn r. Tbus for Su H.. Scrawhna huge buildina fronts wlth Koranic ltt b predominantly tlliterare realmes lithe ll! II is a common ;: When highly Illiterate regimes scrawl M;;. Even otherwue pJcntckert acrawl their names on the 1 b.

Tb' Paces t ey vosat. P'-a at Cllimr or o CID 1. Apia S-. At 1na ,w. Cled b cJLtraordtlllnly large ea.. Wlat Smith ud otbm m Oo pap 32 -L -. Prillcipln CD! For i. Dstaacc fimly a COI: Id oor be apla. Tbc beaornu or tbe lbove prtACipks lhoald belp the , Alcaaoder, the Great. Tltis great tracsty of the truth bas lll'lbcd- clcd ltKlf 10 Indian hbtory all tbc accounts that have CClme do10'o to ut of tbaL great encounter arc all the parliun GrrU: Aod it is ell known that aurcuors sulferiag huml JlatJoa dcfcalS shroud their revcnel i a the phraseology or Tltis il what bu bappcood Ia tbe cue of Alcaaodet't lodla.

He wu the son of Pbihp n. Philip was known for bu utcsmanthip lllld wisdom but Alexander's mother is aid to haw boca ua. IS7 tJVC'"or: A T ' ramo us Greek philoJopher Wll appointed tutor Mlstotlc tbowben tbo tatter attained the ase of 14 But to Alexander for wild adveolur" r. Rather 1ba. Jander preferred. Tbey decided to Pbihp porents wabs c ''c named Cleopatra. Olympia, the queen, lert took aoot er WI I'. Cleopatra bore a son to 10 h1S n10 u Alcundct's complicity in his father's murder docs not seem improbable 1n view of his makina common cause W1tb b1s molber.

Havioa been koown to fbe troops aa the royal prince nd bcir apparent for a number of years, Alexander was bclpcd by t.

On comins to throne, Alexander bad bif cousin: Re first subdued the rebellioUJ hill tribes. Ia tho meantime I he people of Thebes rose 1n revolt Alexander struck a t t hem with great agility and rued tbclr copitalto tbe around. C to tbe world. Tb Dnloa Alll llilnor e two arm1u met on lbe banks of Crao 1 cus , ' B h. Ho declared the local Greek sottlemcDts indcpcndtnl, appo. The newly anncatd reaion loll euily to Alexnnder because Its large Greet populo lion and soldiery proved helpful.

Simultaneously with his land expeditions Aleaander'a oayy bad moved Into the Hellespont, That armada bad helped him keep lD toucb itb bll native country. The 1wo armies met at lsul 10 3 3 B. He now bcs. Tbe liete 1M bole 0 Pboe! On Soptem er , der now act JJ d the tiarls river.

A sharp eagagemeot followe e! The bailie of Ooamil is aileroauvely known as t at o Erbll town of tbal name 60 mlles away. Alexander annexed tbc Babylonian region of tb: Persian empire and catering Persipolis, the capital of l ran, ransaeke;: Dariu fled to the north.

But now a regular bunt ronowed. Darius was overtaken. He was ucompanied by his cousin Besam and a few noblemen only. It was the summer of B. As Alexander's men were about to move forward and Darius tho Iauer's compao1ons tbemsetv.. Theroaf1cr overrunning the hilly country on tbe Caspian Sea "? Alexander moved towards Afghanistan. Serioua diss.. Simme HiDduku;b came to tho aurfaee. By then AI d rtna dtssen. A number of or nac oto a arntaned wltb plottins agai nst their fuhrer a my ollieera were un.

Kina Ambho ruled rcai"n around Jbclum river. Texola was bot aopital. Po rut rulod oer t. Poru1 wu. A lot of iocoolillcnciCJ, aoomalica and lacuooc coo be detected on o AT CI.

They ko11ed manY Greek soldiers. To escape death many jumped into tbc rher but were drowned. In the boule thll cosued be sot killed. But oecounta left by Greek h! Stonaos if properly coos- IIUed make it clear that Porus's elephant corps caused havoc tn tbe enemy ranks and roared Alexander' mighty host. Arriao records! To avood bloodshed Porus generously otTered to 6abt the Greek! Alexander refused rhe CAIIam off?

I n the engagement that followed, h11 hone, ; rally hu, alumped under htm. Tbttca IOdt an tbcn ranks tb. IY atmcd Atria. TluiJ the outcome wu doubtful, the Mac: Tbcy stamped under fool m. Tbey also aored tbe 10b11tO to dcatb W'llb their tusks. Oreek blstoriana would wbnt u to e: He, tbercforc, requutcd PoruJ to.. True to l odiao ,,. Tbc rea. Clt or comrades in orms.

Badae addo tbac , Saddened In heart I am plaoomg to pur ao end to my life. Jt docs not bccomo a tina 10 tbrwt bio soldizn into tbejawa to spllc or sueb clear cvidt: The very rae I I hat Porul woo rrom A!

I u mec..

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S re so Alc. Y u tbc Orcclr: O 'Lp. This it cnc: He did allow mlJplaccd com pusioo to the bcnor of his patrlousm. War-weary, wound cd bomcsick, Slorved and ticrctly opposed at every step tboy were armed intruders, Alexander's soldiers refused to figbt aay more when they reached tbe banks of the Beas. They hod enough or h. The engagement witb Poru. Its harrowing memories were too much for tbem.

Belos unwelcome the territorits througb wbocb tbe1r patb of rttrtat lay Alnander's starv1ng soldiory indulgod 10 p1llagma dcfcncdeu civilian communitios. But this fact bas beeo twiSted io Gr At every lltgo tbo ranks or his deplcltd bost were geniag thinner tbrougb skirmishes, sniping by Indians.

During this retreat an Indian 1ribc callod the Mallois gave atitr figbt o Aleundcr's Oreel: In the many engage. An enemy arrow was sbot at bJm wn! Alcunder feU down on bt's rod the es "ben cocmy toldtcr rushed to slay him wirh a sc 11 nir. His bodyguard c: Throughout its retreat the Greek borde eommlllcd trodtiea, Wbc1 her drunk Wil h victory or reduced to dcnltu.

Re evrn 1en1 a scouuog par1y obnd. Bu1 be laclcd IU,. As he aun: There he W joined by tbr conringcnls under Craoret IDd pan or bh oava. Tba proptc " -: Is owo frleod Oytua. If with two prin. Jmis- h was campun e Maccdonians w'ltb: UJd died 1n a coma. A '7," aolu bolb A Aleuoder bul within tb baq btd iafut Aleuodtt'o remuu,:. S bcro. It is btgb umc that lh ""' 4 ' 01 cl. P,r 1.Oou the an: Thii was done because lahangir's version eon wined vrlcaod disparaging remarks about Shahjahan since the lancr had all along proved 10 be not only a problem child and a wayward ion bur also a traitor by raising the banner of revolt ignnsr hit reigning father.

According to Max Mueller, the Chinese accounts i assign B. Add all three to Cart. He also made people dnol. Hf was very parsimonious and hard-hearted. India mon iocoe more territory for Porus It could be that rhc art. Why is it that tbey built only tombs and mosques without corresponding palaces? I , rau"" Ooc aurrbul the TaJ desla. They were people who used the term ' Arya" as an ideal to be attained or as an honorific as we use the term "gentleman".

SHONTA from Hagerstown
Review my other posts. I have always been a very creative person and find it relaxing to indulge in aerobatics. I do relish reading books viciously.