KAMUSI YA KISWAHILI SANIFU PDF
Lexikos 24 (AFRILEX-reeks/series ): Taasisi ya Taaluma za Kiswahili (TATAKI). Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu. Third Edition. , xvi + pp. KAMUSI YA KISWAHILI SANIFU IN TEST: A COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING DICTIONARIES. AND FOR RETRIEVING LEXICAL DATA. By: Oxford University Press ISBN: 9. Format: x mm. Extent: pages. Binding: Thread sewn. Year:
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TUKI, KAMUSI YA KISWAHILI-KIINGEREZA =: TUKI,. SWAHILI-ENGLISH DICTIONARY BY TUKI PDF. So, even you need responsibility from the firm, you might. Kamusi Ya Karne Ya 21 android app is a digital Swahili dictionary of Longhorn Publishers Limited. The product is suitable for use by primary school pupils. Kamusi Kuu Ya Kiswahili android application is a unique digital product of Longhorn Publishers Limited in partnership with BAKITA. The application has been.
SWATWOL is a morphophonological parser, which uses a language-independentparsing module TWOL Koskenniemi , and takes a rule file and a dictionary, as well as atext file, as input, and processes the text in a number of modes. The rule file consists of a set ofmmphophonological two-level rules, which define the deviant surface fmms of characters incertain phonological environments It is possible to define the environment for rule applicationaccurately by referring to left and light contexts on lexical and surface levels.
This rule facilitysimplifies the structure ofthe lexicon a great deal and speeds up processing For this specific purpose I have prepared such a version of the lexicon, which recognizesand accepts only those wordfmms, for which there is a lexical entry in KKS, while all otherstrings of characters are considered unacceptable When mn in a filtering mode, SWATWOLproduces a list ofthose discarded wordforms2.
The internal test of KKSThe first task was to test the whole text of KKS and find out its intemal inconsistencies andobvious weaknesses After having run the program with the full text ofKKS we can make theobservation that there are discrepancies in all parts of speech, nouns, however, dominatingThe most fi:equently occuning and missing as entries in KKS wordforms are maneno ,4nyingi and mbalimbali Other commonly found forms are nyama 99 , nywele 76 , ujuzi 50 , kike 49 , mizigo 44 , mzigo 23 , kuni 24 , and mwenendo 23 Those arewordforms occuning more than 20 times in KKS in the text, but not found as entries Theword neno is as an entry in singular, but because the plural ma- is not indicated, all pluralforms are rendered as missing in the dictionary or interpreted as belonging to class 10 Theword -ingine is given as an entry in KKS but not -ingi.
Missing words are such as: nyama 99 , kuni 24 , manga 10 , samawati 6 ,chapati 6 , treni 4 , tochi 3 , skurubu 3 , sentimitalsentimeta 6 , sarufi 3 , pondo 3 ,njuzi 3 , and fori 3. Other less commonly occuning words of this class are: tunguu, tanuru,supu, slingi, sensuri, pembetatu, paredi, chororo, chengelele, azma, slipa, sketi, piano, petali,penseli, nomina, ngurumo, netiboli,! As can be seen in the list, many words are there because of theinadequate information in KKS on the plural forms of the nouns.
Here again, there are words which may beclassified under a different noun group. There are also a number of derived wordforms whichare not necessary in a dictionary In the gmup of verbs the number of missing entries is rather small There are some,however, such as: timka, timsha, tawaza, vurumisha, vungaza, vugumiza, topasa, toharisha,titimsha, titimka, sondea, pamua, pamaza, onyeza, nyong'onyeza, rendea, nyenyereka, kikisa,dabua, chusia, bonga, binikiza, and kura.
Another obvious mistake is the omission of kwani The group of adjectives contains some important wordforms, e g.
Kezilahabi and othersAlso scientific texts, mainly from the field of linguistics, are included Newspaper texts are5 In fact one could speak also about computerized text archives, because the contents of the corpus is not yet fixed, but it is being expanded all the time according to resources. S Mdee 2. Adam Shaffi Adam 3.
The project grew in several directions at once, from technical vocabularies to multimedia applications, from general on-line Swahili reference materials to a thou- sand-page draft set of printed translation dictionaries. Work is ongoing, with copy now being prepared for formal print publication of a first edi- tion.
A great deal of work remains to be done. People interested in partic- ipating in any capacity are always welcome, and everybody is invited to examine and use the project's resources see sidebars. The experience of coordinating this project, under the supervision of linguist Ann Biersteker, was an exhilarating lesson in the possibilities technology opens up for cooperative scholarship. The time between Biersteker's original proposal to the Consortium and my September handing of the project's daily management to Charles Mironko and This content downloaded from A talking pronunciation guide and a gram- matical primer are also available.
The entire dictionary can be browsed or downloaded directly from the Gopher site. Limited project information is also available there. Internet users with FTP access can download the entire database in their choice of formats-text only, Postscript ready for immediate laser-printing and binding , Word for Windows, Excel for Windows, and the prototype Access database-all as zip-compressed files. In addition, all the packs are available as uncompressed Excel files through the FTP site.
Point your FtP program at minerva. You can also receive the database as text files by subscrib- ing to Kamusi-L see next sidebar.
Anne Geoghegan was only ten months. In this time the project grew from a 3,word basic glossary compiled from teaching materials by Biersteker, Tom Hinnebusch, and Lioba Moshi, to, on my departure for Tanzania, a 21,entry dictionary in multiple print and computer for- mats. This simply could not have been accomplished without the commu- nications and production shortcuts opened up in the past few years.
Nor could it have occurred without the spirit of cooperation fostered by an emerging Internet culture. The result is a resource that, to my greatest satisfaction, is available free on-line to anyone-except, to my great frus- tration, almost all of the nearly fifty million Swahili speakers from Zaire to Zanzibar. This disk contained the fruits of a huge amount of This content downloaded from In addition to the drudgery of extracting all of the Swahili words and their English glosses from printed material mostly Johnson's dictionary , she included her entire original labor analyzing these nouns.
Her caveats? There were none; we were free to do with her data as we pleased. Other lists, from several hundred to several thou- sand words, would similarly appear in my box from Nairobi or Switzer- land or North Dakota. In July of Elena Bertoncini sent along another completed teaching glossary including 3, words, example sentences culled from Swahili literature, and detailed linguistic informa- tion.
Kamusi YA Kiswahili Sanifu a Standard Swahili-swahili Dictionary
This was material just readied for publication, the result of intense scholarship airmailed on disk pre-press from Naples, without reference to copyright or attribution considerations. Meanwhile, Catholic Univer- sity Press of America gave us blanket copyright permission to incorpo- rate the entirety of Charles Rechenbach's plus-page out-of-print Swahili-English Dictionary.
The usual culture of the academy militates against such brazen coop- eration. The twin career imperatives to publish and to be first cultivate a Joining the Kamusi Project The best way to participate is by joining the Kamusi-L discus- sion group. Send an e-mail from your regular address to listserv yalevm. Kamusi-L subscribers may also have the entire data- base sent to them as e-mail.
Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu Toleo la Tatu
A subscriber sends a mail message to listserv reading, for example: get packl. The current data- base is divided into 42 packs. Packs 1 through 21 are the Swahili-to-English dictionary, and Packs 31 through 51 are the English-to-Swahili dictionary.
Each pack contains roughly 1, entries, so getting the entire database by this method involves repeated e-mail messages: get pack2.
Kamusi-L is moderated, which means that subscribers receive only e-mail that is related to Swahili dictio- nary development. We also welcome other correspondence. The direct e-mail address for the project is swahili minerva.
This content downloaded from In an era of tight funding and dwindling teaching opportunities, anticompetitive behavior that does not even appear on a curriculum vitae should not occur. That it did occur I attribute to one thing peculiar to East Africa, one to the Internet, and one to their particular nexus: 1. The huge, pent-up demand felt by so many students of Swahili for thorough, user-friendly reference materials. We receive numerous letters documenting this need.
An unrecognized urge by computer users to be involved in some- thing useful. So many of us invest the time and money into getting on- line, only to find that, aside from being better correspondents with friends who have scattered around the galaxy, there is not much purpose to all this commotion.
The Kamusi Project, by appealing for help from people at all levels of Swahili knowledge beginners keep us honest, reminding us of the basic needs a dictionary must meet for learners; life- long speakers and career scholars provide depth, accuracy, and currency taps a vein. No longer is your modem connection just a way to bypass a trip to the post office or the library. Now it becomes important to log on and use all this equipment-a project bigger than any individual's capa- bilities provides gravity against weightless drifting in cyberspace.
A recognized urge by many students of Africa to give something back. Participants know that we seek to make project resources widely available and that we are forgoing profit. For many the project repre- sented a voluntary charitable organization dedicated to a unique and worthy cause, a linguistic Habitat for Humanity.
Even the few hasty "flame" attacks-"Another good idea ruined by you Europeans"-sup- port the basic premise. None of us, however, has ever defined exactly what benefit we think East Africans will derive from our work. Certainly secondary students in Tanzania, who are taught in English after a pri- mary curriculum almost exclusively taught in Swahili, will benefit if we are able to produce dictionaries that are cheap enough for them to access.
Others seeking to trade or visit internationally also stand to gain. We have all left wider questions of the roles of English and Swahili in East African societies entirely to the side, assuming for the moment that the production and dissemination of educational materials is in itself for the greater good.
Our neo-Gothic bay windows overlook a street bustling with students. The office is filled with old furniture, shelves of books on languages from HTML to Xhosa, and powerful ivory-colored computer equipment.
The main Pentium is fired up. The staff arrives by foot or bicycle, by way of Tanzania, Kenya, and Boston. Others arrive as disem- This content downloaded from From southern France the experts are interrupted with a plea not to forget students of Swahili still getting a handle on using nouns in sentences.
After a week's discussion, a consensus starts to emerge. For the time being, we use the standard numbers but indicate animate nouns with the additional notation "an.
Another discussion might be about Swahili terms for homosexuality, or for concepts relating to Islam. A computer programmer in Zurich Using the Dictionaries We invite you to download, print, and distribute the data we have compiled. The work is copyrighted property of the Yale Program in African Languages in trust for project participants.
Therefore, any copies you distribute must include our copyright notice and list of participants. Further, you may not make any content changes to the data or make any profit from selling it. We ask all users to keep track of any errors and missing, insufficient, or out-of-date entries. Please send back any correc- tions or additions you feel we should make.
We will put your suggestions through the editorial process and update the data- base accordingly. We will also add you to the list of project par- ticipants. Only through your active participation will these remain 'living" dictionaries.
We are pursuing formal print publication of Swahili-to- English, English-to-Swahili, and Swahili-only dictionaries. These will be easier to use and nicer to read than the computer- ized versions. They will also be cheaper than printing your own copies. Any royalties from sales of project products will be used for further Swahili-language scholarship. A graduate student in Los Ange- les, back from Zanzibar, offers her vocabulary list for taarab music.
A lin- guistics instructor in Canada sends a flashcard software program he and his son designed from our database. A Danish couple wants help naming their newborn. A man in Ireland wants advice on setting up a similar project for Gaelic.
Milton Bradley asks about the Swahili origins of their game "Jenga. What is more, I like generating or expanding interest and knowl- edge about things East African. One of my goals in designing our Web interface has been to bring in people who know next to nothing about this part of the world.
Through our resources and the links we provide to other Internet sites, people elsewhere can know that this is a real place with real people speaking a real language; and that it is compli- cated, current, interesting, and important. This is pedagogy for the information elite.
Partly in the hope that an informed public will cre- ate informed policy, partly to make an assault on ignorance, much of our work has been done explicitly to prevent knowledge from and about East Africa from being entirely overshadowed. The Cyberian culture canonizes as real what is digitized.
Students who cannot be bothered to go to the library write entire essays from whatever data happens their way through a Nexis or Webcrawler search. People who never write to their congressional representatives become instant activists when a political Internet forum provides an easy form e-let- ter. Total strangers get caught up in a banal on-line chat session and miss real-life appointments. Friends you have not heard from in years discover your address, and suddenly you are trading baby pictures and planning visits.
Via e-mail I was corresponding with dozens of people on a daily or weekly basis; to most of these people I ceased to exist the day I left for Africa and became Cyberia is, in one respect, an ideological echo chamber.
We tell each other how clever we are to have arrived and how wonderful things are now that we are here.They are about to sell their maize harvests in a market heavily influenced by computerized futures trading.
Except for a few video and tape records, most of this folklore is neither written nor published. Point your FtP program at minerva. Harper, J. It is neither a new phenomenon nor is it easy to define in military terms. When a term is used for a variety of concepts, it is said to lack precision. Resistance to colonial rule and the clamour for independence was therefore inevitable.
Legal Terminology in African Languages. Vita vya panzi ni furaha ya kunguru. The examples ofmissing words given above give a superficial picture of the whole truth.
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