MBA HR NOTES PDF

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Concept based notes. Human Resource Management. MBA (II SEM). Richa Khunteta. Surbhi Mathur. Dept of MBA. Biyani Institute of Science & Management, . human resource management semester notes week what is hrm? the focus of hrm is on managing people within the employer-employee relationship. it involves. Download MBA Human Resource Management complete notes pdf. Here We Provide the Links to Download MBA 2nd sem HRM Study.


Mba Hr Notes Pdf

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. Class.: I MBA being prepared by me and it meets the Computer Applications In Human Resource Management. GLOBAL HR PRACTICES. UNIT – I. CHAPTER – I. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS & GLOBALISATION. INTRODUCTION. Globalisation for better or worse has. MBA – II Semester. Paper Code: MBAC PAPER – VIII. Human Resources Management. Objectives ӹ To understand and appreciate the.

Pa st -o r ient ed a nd fut ur e-o r ient ed Jo b A na lysis: For rapidly changing organization more future oriented approach would be desired. For traditional organizations past oriented analysis would be required. However more future oriented analysis may be derived based on past data.

So ur c es of Jo b Dat a : For job analysis number of human and non-human sources is available besides jobholder himself.

Following can be sources of data available for job analysis. Trained Job Analysts Supervisors Job Incumbents Pr o c essing I nfo r ma t io n: Once the job information is collected it needs to be processed, so that it would be useful in various personnel functions. Specifically job related data would be useful to prepare job description and specifications, which form the next two processes of job analysis.

It is a simple and accurate method, but is also time consuming and inapplicable to jobs involving mental activities and unobservable job cycles. The analysts must be fully trained observers.

I nt er v iew: In this analyst interviews the jobholders, his supervisors to elicit information. It can be Structured or Unstructured Interview. Again this is also a time consuming method in case of large organizations. Plus there is also a problem of bias. Quest io nna ir es: A standard questionnaire is given to jobholder about his job, which can be filled and given back to supervisors or job analysts.

The questionnaire may contain job title, jobholders name, managers name, reporting staff, description of job, list of main duties and responsibilities etc. It is useful in large number of staffs and less time consuming.

However the accuracy of information leaves much to be desired. Chec klist s : It is more similar to questionnaire but the response sheet contains fewer subjective judgments and tends to be either yes or no variety. Preparation of checklist is a challenging job itself. Tec hnic a l Co nfer enc e : Here a conference of supervisors is used. The analysts initiate the discussions providing job details.

However this method lacks accuracy. Dia r y M et ho ds: In this method jobholder is required to note down their activities day by day in their diary.

If done faithfully this technique is accurate and eliminates errors caused by memory lapses etc. The PAQ contains job elements on which job is created depending on the degree to which an element is present.

These elements are grouped together into 6 categories. This analysis provides a comparison of a specific job with other job classifications, particularly for selection and remuneration purposes.

IA Marks : 50 No. of Lecture Hours / Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03

However PAQ needs to be completed by trained job analysts only rather than incumbents. M a na gem ent Po sit io n Desc r ipt io n Quest io nna ir e M PDQ : Highly structured questionnaire, containing elements relating to managerial responsibilities, demand, restrictions and other position characteristics These elements are grouped under 13 categories.

Job description is a word picture in writing of the duties, responsibilities and organizational relationships that constitutes a given job or position. It defines continuing work assignment and a scope of responsibility that are sufficiently different from those of the other jobs to warrant a specific title. Job description is a broad statement of purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job. Contents of Job Description 1.

Job Identification 2. Job Summary 3. Job Duties and Responsibilities 4. Supervision specification 5.

Machines, tools and materials 6. Work conditions 7. Work hazards 8. Up to date 2. Proper Job Title 3. Comprehensive Job Summary 4. Clear duties and responsibilities 5. Easily understandable 6. State job requirements 7. Specify reporting relationships 8. Showcase degrees of difficulties 9. Indicates opportunities for career development These specifications are needed to do job satisfactorily.

In other words it is a statement of minimum and acceptable human qualities necessary to perform job properly.

Job specifications seeks to indicate what kind of persons may be expected to most closely approximate the role requirements and thus it is basically concerned with matters of selection, screening and placement and is intended to serve as a guide in hiring.

Contents of Job Specifications 1. Physical Characteristics 2. Psychological characteristics 3. Personal characteristics 4.

Responsibilities 5. Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description and job specification only. Job Evaluation helps to determine wages and salary grades for all jobs. Employees need to be compensated depending on the grades of jobs which they occupy. Remuneration also involves fringe benefits, bonus and other benefits. Clearly remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each job. Ignoring this basic principle results in inequitable compensation.

A perception of inequity is a sure way of de-motivating an employee. Job evaluation is a process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization. Jobs are evaluated on the basis of content, placed in order of importance. This establishes Job Hierarchies, which is a purpose of fixation of satisfactory wage differentials among various jobs.

Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials, demand for and supply of labor, ability to pay, industrial parity, collective bargaining and the like. Process of Job Evaluation: 1. Defining objectives of job evaluation a. Identify jobs to be evaluated Benchmark jobs or all jobs b. Who should evaluate job? What training do the evaluators need? How much time involved?

What are the criteria for evaluation? Methods of evaluation to be used 2. Wage Survey 3. Employee Classification 4. Establishing wage and salary differentials. Methods of Job Evaluation Analytical Methods Point Ranking Methods: Different factors are selected for different jobs with accompanying differences in degrees and points.

Factor Comparison Method: The important factors are selected which can be assumed to be common to all jobs. Each of these factors are then ranked with other jobs. The worth of the job is then taken by adding together all the point values.

Job is not broken down into factors etc. Job Grading Method: It is based on the job as a whole and the differentiation is made 25 on the basis of job classes and grades. In this method it is important to form a grade description to cover discernible differences in skills, responsibilities and other characteristics. Pitfalls of Job Evaluation: Encourages employees on how to advance in position when there may be limited opportunities for enhancement as a result of downsizing. It promotes internal focus instead of customer orientation Not suitable for forward looking organizations, which has trimmed multiple job titles into two or three broad jobs.

Definit io n 1: Inte gr atio n o f wo r k , r ew ar ds and qualifica tio n Job Design integrates work content tasks, functions, relationships , the rewards and qualifications required including skills, knowledge and abilities for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and the organization.

St eps in J ob Design: 1. Specification of Individual Tasks 2. Specification of Methods of Tasks Performance 3.

The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual. To be more specific, work simplification is mechanical pacing of work, repetitive work processes, working only on one part of a product, predetermining tools and techniques, restricting interaction amongst employees, few skills requirement.

Work simplification is used when jobs are not specialized. J ob Ro t at io n: When incumbents become bore of routine jobs, job rotation is an answer to it.

Here jobs remain unchanged, but the incumbents shift from one job to another. On the positive side, it increases the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities needed to perform it. Workers become more competent in several jobs, know variety of jobs and improve the self-image, personal growth. Further the worker becomes more valuable to the organization. Periodic job changes can improve interdepartmental cooperation.

On the negative side, it may not be much enthusiastic or efficiency may not be more. Besides jobs may not improve the relationships between task, while activities and objectives remain unchanged. Further training costs also rise and it can 27 also de-motivate intelligent and ambitious trainees who seek specific responsibilities in their chosen specialties.

J ob Enla r gem ent : It means expanding the number of tasks, or duties assigned to a given job. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed. There is only horizontal expansion. It is with same skills taking additional responsibilities like extending working hours etc.

Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system. For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system. Job enlargement is said to contribute to employee motivation but the claim is not validated in practice. Benefits of Job Enlargement: 1. Task Variety 2. Meaningful Work Modules 3. Full Ability Utilization 4. Worker Paced Control 5. High Training Costs 2. Redesigning existing work system required 3.

Human resource management pdf,ebook,lecture notes download for MBA students

Productivity may not increase necessarily 4. Workload increases 5. Unions demand payhike 6. Jobs may still remain boring and routine J ob Enr ic hm ent : Job enrichment is improvisation of both tasks efficiency and human satisfaction by building into peoples jobs, quite specifically, greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth.

An enriched job will have more responsibility, more autonomy vertical enrichment , more variety of tasks horizontal enrichment and more growth opportunities. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation. In other words, transferring some of the supervisors tasks to the employee and making his job enriched.

Benefit s o f J ob enr ic hm ent 1. It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation, performance, satisfaction, job involvement and reduced absenteeism.

Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety, identity, significance of job etc. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control.

Job enrichment gives status to jobholder and acts as a strong satisfier in ones life. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization. Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. It means passing on more authority and responsibility. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power.

It wont fetch the desired results for an employee who is not attentive towards his job. Unions resistance, increased cost of design and implementation and limited research on long term effect of job enrichment are some of the other demerits. Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor.

As per the two-factor motivation theory, job enrichment is not enough. Clear duties and responsibilities 5. Easily understandable 6. State job requirements 7.

Specify reporting relationships 8. Showcase degrees of difficulties 9. Indicates opportunities for career development These specifications are needed to do job satisfactorily. In other words it is a statement of minimum and acceptable human qualities necessary to perform job properly.

Job specifications seeks to indicate what kind of persons may be expected to most closely approximate the role requirements and thus it is basically concerned with matters of selection, screening and placement and is intended to serve as a guide in hiring. Contents of Job Specifications 1. Physical Characteristics 2. Psychological characteristics 3. Personal characteristics 4. Responsibilities 5. Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description and job specification only.

Job Evaluation helps to determine wages and salary grades for all jobs. Employees need to be compensated depending on the grades of jobs which they occupy. Remuneration also involves fringe benefits, bonus and other benefits. Clearly remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each job. Ignoring this basic principle results in inequitable compensation. A perception of inequity is a sure way of de-motivating an employee. Job evaluation is a process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization.

Jobs are evaluated on the basis of content, placed in order of importance. This establishes Job Hierarchies, which is a purpose of fixation of satisfactory wage differentials among various jobs. Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials, demand for and supply of labor, ability to pay, industrial parity, collective bargaining and the like.

Process of Job Evaluation: 1. Defining objectives of job evaluation a.

Identify jobs to be evaluated Benchmark jobs or all jobs b. Who should evaluate job? What training do the evaluators need?

How much time involved? What are the criteria for evaluation? Methods of evaluation to be used 2. Wage Survey 3. Employee Classification 4.

Establishing wage and salary differentials. Methods of Job Evaluation Analytical Methods Point Ranking Methods: Different factors are selected for different jobs with accompanying differences in degrees and points. Factor Comparison Method: The important factors are selected which can be assumed to be common to all jobs. Each of these factors are then ranked with other jobs. The worth of the job is then taken by adding together all the point values.

Job is not broken down into factors etc. Job Grading Method: It is based on the job as a whole and the differentiation is made 25 on the basis of job classes and grades.

In this method it is important to form a grade description to cover discernible differences in skills, responsibilities and other characteristics.

Human Resource Management Notes Mba

Pitfalls of Job Evaluation: Encourages employees on how to advance in position when there may be limited opportunities for enhancement as a result of downsizing. It promotes internal focus instead of customer orientation Not suitable for forward looking organizations, which has trimmed multiple job titles into two or three broad jobs.

Definit io n 1: Inte gr atio n o f wo r k , r ew ar ds and qualifica tio n Job Design integrates work content tasks, functions, relationships , the rewards and qualifications required including skills, knowledge and abilities for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and the organization.

St eps in J ob Design: 1. Specification of Individual Tasks 2. Specification of Methods of Tasks Performance 3. The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual.

To be more specific, work simplification is mechanical pacing of work, repetitive work processes, working only on one part of a product, predetermining tools and techniques, restricting interaction amongst employees, few skills requirement.

Work simplification is used when jobs are not specialized. J ob Ro t at io n: When incumbents become bore of routine jobs, job rotation is an answer to it. Here jobs remain unchanged, but the incumbents shift from one job to another. On the positive side, it increases the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities needed to perform it. Workers become more competent in several jobs, know variety of jobs and improve the self-image, personal growth.

Further the worker becomes more valuable to the organization. Periodic job changes can improve interdepartmental cooperation. On the negative side, it may not be much enthusiastic or efficiency may not be more. Besides jobs may not improve the relationships between task, while activities and objectives remain unchanged. Further training costs also rise and it can 27 also de-motivate intelligent and ambitious trainees who seek specific responsibilities in their chosen specialties.

J ob Enla r gem ent : It means expanding the number of tasks, or duties assigned to a given job. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed. There is only horizontal expansion.

It is with same skills taking additional responsibilities like extending working hours etc. Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system.

For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system. Job enlargement is said to contribute to employee motivation but the claim is not validated in practice.

Benefits of Job Enlargement: 1. Task Variety 2. Meaningful Work Modules 3. Full Ability Utilization 4.

Human Resource Management Notes Mba

Worker Paced Control 5. High Training Costs 2. Redesigning existing work system required 3. Productivity may not increase necessarily 4. Workload increases 5. Unions demand payhike 6. Jobs may still remain boring and routine J ob Enr ic hm ent : Job enrichment is improvisation of both tasks efficiency and human satisfaction by building into peoples jobs, quite specifically, greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth.

An enriched job will have more responsibility, more autonomy vertical enrichment , more variety of tasks horizontal enrichment and more growth opportunities. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation.

In other words, transferring some of the supervisors tasks to the employee and making his job enriched. Benefit s o f J ob enr ic hm ent 1.

It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation, performance, satisfaction, job involvement and reduced absenteeism. Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety, identity, significance of job etc. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control. Job enrichment gives status to jobholder and acts as a strong satisfier in ones life. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization.

Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. It means passing on more authority and responsibility. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power. It wont fetch the desired results for an employee who is not attentive towards his job. Unions resistance, increased cost of design and implementation and limited research on long term effect of job enrichment are some of the other demerits.

Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor. As per the two-factor motivation theory, job enrichment is not enough. It should be 28 preceded by hygienic factors etc. Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility, job enrichment surely de-motivates them 5.

Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility. A uto no m o us o f Self- Dir ec t ed Tea m s: Empowerment results in self-directed work teams. A self directed team is an intact group of employees responsible for whole work segment, they work together, handle day-to-day problems, plan and control, and are highly effective teams.

H igh Per fo r m a nc e Wo r k Design: Improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set leads to high performance work design. It starts from the principle of autonomous groups working and developing an approach, which enables group to work effectively together in situations where the rate of innovation is very high.

Operational flexibility is important and there is the need for employees to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision. However due to bureaucracy high performance work design does not work.

Job design affects employee productivity, motivation and satisfaction. Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. How a job design creates a motivating job can be seen with the help of certain components of job design, namely, job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, work simplification etc.

Work simplification simplifies the job by breaking down the job into small parts. Simplified jobs are easy to perform hence employees find it easy to do. Training requirements are reduced and it benefits the organizations in terms of cost. Job rotation means movement of employees of job to job across the organization.

It improves the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities are needed to perform a job. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one. It also improves workers self image, provides personal growth and makes workers more valuable to the organization. Periodic job change can improve inter-departmental cooperation.

Employees become more understanding to each others problems. Consequently it provides a high level of motivation to employees because jobs itself become motivators. Hence job rotation helps the job become more motivating. Job enlargement involves expanding number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. Job enrichment involves improving task efficiency and human satisfaction. Job enrichment provides greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth.

An enriched job gives vertical enrichment in the form of more responsibility and autonomy and a horizontal enrichment in the form of variety of tasks and more growth opportunities. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more selfevaluation. All these factors lead to increased level of motivation and hence make the jobs more motivated. Considering above examples, we can say that designing jobs is actually using the relevant and right techniques of job design, like rotation, enrichment, simplifications and make the jobs more motivating to perform.

So we can say that Designing Jobs is actually creating Motivated Jobs. The attitudes related to job may be wages, supervision, steadiness, working conditions, advancement opportunities, recognitions, fair evaluation of work, social relations on job, prompt settlement of grievances etc. In short job satisfaction is a general attitude, which is the result of many specific attitudes in three areas namely, job factors, individual characteristics and group relationships outside the job.

Work sampling operates by an observer taking a series of random observations on a particular "thing" of interest machine, operating room, dock, etc. When enough samples are taken, an analysis of the observations yields a statistically valid indication of the states for each thing analyzed. Assume, for example, that you wish to determine the proportion of time a factory operator is working or idle.

Also assume that random observations were made of the operator and during 24 of these he or she was observed to be idle. Advantages of Work Sampling It is relatively inexpensive to use and extremely helpful in providing a deeper understanding of all types of operations. When properly used, it can help pinpoint those areas, which should be analyzed in, further detail and can serve as a measure of the progress being made in improving operations.

When we are not adding value to the product, how are we spending our time? How are our inter-dependent systems performing? Where should we focus our continuous improvement activities?Cultural factors: Every country has its own unique culture which is slightly similar to the cultures of other countries of the world. They have narrow and stable product market domain. More time is provided to locate talent 4. Anyways education is common to all employees. All you really need to start applying these skills for your business is a small head start.

Customer Satisfaction Survey 9.

Rewards merely reinforce these conditions for fostering group effort. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one. Most successful programs seem to include top managements involvement and commitment.

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