INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE PDF S
RCU is dedicated to improving the quality of life for Mississippians. .. Course Description: Industrial Maintenance is a continuation with the emphasis on. MIC has produced this book for use in its Industrial Maintenance Mechanical The primary purpose of mechanical fitting is to transmit forces across parts of a. PDF | With increased global competition for manufacturing, many maintenance is interpreted in the context of industrial systems (such as.
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PDF | According to the technical progress and the new information and communication technologies The industrial maintenance, which is primarily engaged. A goal of maintenance is to eliminate or to avoid unnecessary or unplanned Maintenance can influences the entire plant operation, from product quality to. PLANT wildlifeprotection.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or Based on the point in time when repairs or maintenance work is carried out.
Although it does represent a cost lubricant and labour , it is generally so low that it is more than warranted, since a malfunction due to a lack of lubrication will always involve a greater expense than the corresponding to lubricant application.
With this remark, we can already define the various possible maintenance models.
It is applied, as we will see, to equipments with the lowest level of criticality, whose faults are not a problem, economically or technically.
In this type of equipment is not profitable to devote more resources and efforts. If after testing we discovered an anomaly, we will schedule an intervention; on the contrary, if everything is correct, we will not act on the equipment. This maintenance model is valid in equipment not to very used, or for equipment that despite being important in the production system the probability of failure is low. It is a model widely used in equipment of medium availability, of some importance in the production system whose failures cause some disruption.
It is important to note that equipment subjected to a systematic maintenance model does not have to have all its tasks with a fixed schedule.
Just a equipment with this model of maintenance can have systematic tasks that are carried out regardless of the time it have been operated or state of the elements on which it works. It is the main difference with the previous two models in which to perform a maintenance task should be some sign of failure.
An example of equipment subjected to this maintenance model is a discontinuous reactor, in which the tasks that must react are introduced at once, the reaction takes place, and then the reaction product is extracted before making a new load. Regardless of this reactor is doubled or not, when operating should be reliable, so it is warranted a series of tasks regardless of whether any signs of failure have been arose.
Other examples: The landing gear of an aircraft The engine of an aircraft D. It is applied to that equipment that under no circumstances may suffer a breakdown or malfunction. The reason for such high level of availability is generally high cost in production due to a fault.
With a demand so high, there is no time to stop the equipment if the maintenance requires it corrective, preventive, systematic.
To maintain this equipment is necessary to use predictive maintenance techniques that allow us to know the status of the equipment when is working, and scheduled shutdowns, which supposes a complete overhaul, with a frequency usually annually or higher.
This review will replace, in general, all parts subject to wear or failure probability over the years parts with a lifetime less than two years.
Maintenance Engineering Articles PDF
These reviews are prepared well in advance and not have to be exactly the same every year. Since in this model the corrective maintenance is not included, that is, the aim should be zero breakdowns on this equipment; usually there is no time to properly address the issues that occur, being desirable in many cases quick provisional repairs that will maintain the equipment working until the next overhaul.
Therefore, the Annual Overhaul must include the resolution of all those provisional repairs that have had to be made throughout the year. Examples of this model of maintenance may be: Turbine of power production high temperature furnaces, where an intervention means cooling and re-heating the furnace, resulting in energy expense and production losses associated with it.
Rotating equipment working continuously Reactor deposits or reaction tanks not duplicated that are the basis of production and to be kept in operation as many hours as possible. Other considerations When designing the Maintenance Plan should be taken into account two important considerations affecting some equipment in particular.
Firstly, some equipment are subjected to legal rules that regulate their maintenance, forcing them to perform certain activities with an established frequency. These two aspects should be assessed when trying to determine the maintenance model that we should apply to an equipment. Above all, there are equipment that are hazardous to people or the environment.
The Administration requires the completion of a series of tasks, tests and inspections, and some of them must be performed by companies duly authorized to carry them out.
These tasks must necessarily be incorporated into the Maintenance Plan of the equipment, whatever model you decide to apply. Some of the equipment subjected to this type of maintenance are: Equipment and devices under pressure Installation of High and Medium Voltage Cooling Towers Certain lifts: service or people Vehicles Storage tanks of certain chemicals B.
As we said, we must turn to a specialist when: We do not have sufficient knowledge We do not have the necessary resources If there are these circumstances, some or all of maintenance work must be outsourced to specialized companies.
The subcontracted maintenance to a specialist is usually the most expensive alternative, as the company offering it is aware that not compete. As circumstance changes adapt to changes. Training provision should be need based. In house training may save money, but may compromise on quality. Refers to any resource that is held in stock for future use spares, equipment etc. Maintenance cost is generally made up of three components: Having too much inventory is a problem because it increases cost associated with keeping inventory.
Storage Space Cost Interest on cash used in purchasing excess spares and materials Insurance Cost against theft and fire Cost of obsolete or expired materials Not having enough inventory is a problem because is increased both cost of production downtime and also maintenance labor cost.
How much is Too Much? Factors that call for Increase in Inventory High cost of production downtime Excessive maintenance scheduling Discounted bulk purchasing Unnecessary variety in plant equipment Decentralisation of maintenance stores Supplier location and dependability.
Factors that call for decrease in Inventory Lack of cash Supplier reliability Obsolesce of stock Storage cost Have a database of inventory and make sure it is regularly updated. Facility Register. Generally when staff number is more than ten, and also crafts number is more than two. The larger the department, the more scheduling needs to be done. Reason for Scheduling: Can result in improved efficiency of department Ensure essential jobs are performed when monitored.
Helps in monitoring employees performance How much Scheduling: Monitor effectiveness! Steps required in scheduling: Work description, job ticket, work sheet. A staff should be dedicated to receive these orders.
Maintenance staff to redirect orders to this person. Job no. Enough detail information must be recorded. Must also include work previously scheduled, but not completed.
Awareness of individual employees performance rating, motivation is vital. The foreman must not assume all personnel have his work rate. This will help avoid incomplete work, idling of craftsmen. Early communication of schedule to responsible staff will help their preparation towards work, leading to improved efficiency.
Cancellations and other changes should be relayed. Necessary when work load exceeds resources, i. Maintenance must liase with production manager to determine priority. If there are more than one production unit, be fair to all.
Remember the plant manager should have the final say and take responsibility for his decision. Health and Safety always a priority. Produce a Priority System chart similar to Page 1.
Mechanical Engineering industrial books :
Maintenance Work Order Maintenance planning is a mechanism within the maintenance department for coordinating the work to be assigned. This usually carried out by the maintenance planning group. Section 6 Operational Policies for Effective Maintenance Department Policy guidelines must be developed to take care of: Work allocation Workforce recruitment and development Intra-plant relations Control.
Work Allocation Policy Considerations Day to day allocation of work load must be planned. The larger the department, the more thorough this planning should be.
Incentive pay to be introduced where possible Choose a suitable work unit. This may be in man hours, standard time in hours, half man day, man day, man week. Major works are schedules with suitable lead time, stating number and type of skilled workers required, and also the length of time required.
Small jobs tend to be unscheduled. Decide on lead time for scheduling. A weekly or bi weekly schedule with a 2 to 3 day lead time is a good idea. Intra-plant Relations Policy Considerations To what extent maintenance staff should be involved in selecting production equipment.
Their involvement likely to result in reduced maintenance cost.
Who should have authority to shutdown the plant for maintenance? This should be stated clearly. Who has responsibility for safety? Should there be a health and safety department?. Control Policy Considerations Decide on the channels of communication Emphasize organizational structure Communication should be reduced to minimum.
Feedback systems should be incorporated to ensure that orders are not being ignored, and that policies are being adhered to. Cost control system should be covered. Depends on cost Cost of maintenance work and cost of downtime. Quality of work required, availability of specialist, skilled workers, retention rates. Own staff to handle normal load, peak load can be deferred or handled by contractors.
Contractors may be used for major projects. Attitude of staff. Absenteeism, militant trade union. How many of the various specialties should be required.
For example how many chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, etc. How many full time and part time roles to be created.
Number of shifts to operated 1,2, or 3 shifts? By which craftsmen?
Is there a need for on call service? To be carried out by who? How this should be paid. Should the department be centralized or decentralized? A pump is a device that transfers a specific volume of liquid at a particular pressure from a fixed source to a final destination. Types of Pump Pumps are normally classified according to their structure. Displacement Pump is a pump which imparts energy to the pumped liquid by trapping a fixed volume at suction inlet conditions, and pushing it into a discharge outlet line.
Kinetic Pump, example of which is a centrifugal pump forces the liquid being pumped into a set of rotating valves which constitute the impeller, discharging the liquid at a higher pressure and higher velocity to the outlet.
There are many different types of pumps based on the structure and mode of operation. Centrifugal Pumps Fig 2. A centrifugal pump consist of a stationary pump casing and an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft.
The pump casing has suction and discharge connections for the main flow path of the pump and normally has small drain and vent fittings to remove gases trapped in the pump casing or to drain the pump casing for maintenance. Fig 2. The pump casing guides the liquid from the suction connection to the centre of the impeller. The vanes of the rotating impeller impart a radial and rotary motion to the liquid, forcing it to the outer periphery of the pump casing where it is collected in the outer part of the pump casing called the volute.
The volute is a region that expands in cross-sectional area as it wraps around the pump casing. The purpose of the volute is to collect the liquid discharged from the periphery of the impeller at high velocity and gradually cause a reduction in fluid velocity by increasing the flow area. This converts the velocity head to static pressure. The fluid is then discharged from the pump through the discharge connection.
Some centrifugal pumps contain diffusers. A diffuser is a set of stationary vanes that surround the impeller. The purpose of the diffuser is to increase the efficiency of the centrifugal pump by allowing a more gradual expansion and less turbulent area for the liquid to reduce in velocity.
The diffuser vanes are designed in a manner that the liquid exiting the impeller will encounter an ever increasing flow area as it passes through the diffuser. This increase in flow area causes a reduction in flow velocity, converting kinetic energy into flow pressure. The lantern ring is inserted between rings of packing in the stuffing box to receive relatively cool, clean liquid and distribute the liquid uniformly around the shaft to provide lubrication and cooling to the packing.
Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pumps A centrifugal pump with a single impeller that can develop a differential pressure of more than psi between the suction and the discharge is difficult and costly to design and construct.When established, the process of continuous improvement will have a stabilization effect and then a significant reduction in failures. Quality of work required, availability of specialist, skilled workers, retention rates.
Visual inspections virtually no cost money these inspections will be included in a range where we have to look at other nearby equipment, so it will not mean we have to allocate resources specifically for this function. In this type of equipment is not profitable to devote more resources and efforts. Therefore, the Annual Overhaul must include the resolution of all those provisional repairs that have had to be made throughout the year.
TYPES OF MAINTENANCE
Some centrifugal pumps contain diffusers. Checklist for Maintenance and Inspection of Safety Equipment. Reference for proper planning and implementing preventive maintenance system.
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