MUSIC HARMONY PDF
Of all musical disciplines, harmony is probably the most written about. Textbooks approach was originally intended for tonal music, certain notions of harmonic. Berklee College Of Music - Harmony wildlifeprotection.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page
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Shortly after the revised edition of Arnold Schoenberg's Theory of Harmony . position that the system of major-minor tonaliry is no necessity of music, no. Comenius University in Bratislava. Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics. Music Harmony Analysis: Towards a Harmonic Complexity of Musical Pieces. Harmony Book for Beginners (Orem, Preston Ware) Sheet Music Title, Harmony book for beginners: a text book and writing book for the first year's work , for.
These, and especially the writings on harmony of J. Kirnberger , may be regarded as being, in a sense, a protest against such theoretical absurdities as those presented in the Rameau-Marpurg System. But even in works on harmony by some of the most eminent theorists and musicians of their time, we find the opinion, expressed with the utmost emphasis, that a rational theory of harmony based on acoustical phenomena is impossible. Witness, for example, the Traite de I'harmonie of Fr. Fetis , and the Harmonik und Metrik of Moritz Hauptmann In this country, the well-known system of harmony Alfred Day has long held a foremost place, notwithstanding that it was vigorously opposed by such a musician as Sir John Stainer, who himself proposed a new " theory of hfirmony based on the tempered scale.
The late Professor Prout, who at first closely adhered to Day's system of harmony, finally discarded acoustical phenomena as the basis of the theory of harmony, without, however, being able to find for it any other adequate The examination basis, or to evolye any independent theory. It is not surprising that at the present day the greatest uncertainty and misgiving exist, not only with respect to the theory of harmony itself, but even as to' what constitutes the proper basis of such a theory.
Nevertheless, it need hardly be said, the results of the strivings of generations of musical theorists' by no means represent so much time and labour wasted.
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Their researches have already borne fruit, and are destined to bear, we believe, ; much greater fruit.
At any rate, these researches no student of the subject can possibly afford to neglect. In 'our examination, in the present volume, of the various important works which treat of the subject of harmony, much prominence has been given to the theoretical works of Rameau, who is generally spoken of as having " laid the foundations of the science of harmony. He was not only one of the greatest theorists of his time, but one of the greatest of all the theorists who have at any time endeavoured to elucidate the mysteries of harmony, and to discover its laws.
In his own day, he was acclaimed as the " Newton of harmony. By using 4 parts harmony on 4 staves, only the first rhythmic voice is used in each staff. By using 4 parts harmony on 2 staves, here is how the parts are assigned to the staves and rhythmic voices: When you need to enter notes in the score with the note tools, you can specify which voice you edit by the small popup menu found in the upper left part of the main tool bar above the score.
By default it displays "" which means that the voices will be automatically assigned. You can learn more about rhythmic voices in the Help menu, in Writing scores Introduction of notes and rests 4. It will only take them in consideration while analysing the combinations, but never change it. It displays the following dialog box: You can specify the limits by using the left and right mouse click on the displayed keyboard.
You can also specify the range of notes by moving up or down the handles above and below the thick green bars that appear in front of each part in the score: These bars roughly show the range of the notes that can be used in the current clef of the part.
The purpose is to be able to edit the 4 parts in a simple form that clearly shows the harmony used, as we have seen here above. Once this structure is stable or even during its development , you can assign new staves to each part, that will in fact use that part to generate rhythmic patterns. This can be used to assign the four parts to a woodwind section as well as to a string quartet and hear the resulting ensemble as an orchestra.
In electronic music, the bass part can be assigned to a dynamic rhythmic bass that will then follow the bass line. Combinations are numerous and they can be used to stimulate the composition process because when you hear the result resembling more to the final effect you want to achieve, it becomes itself more inspiring.
To assign a new staff to one of the parts, simply right-click on the folder of that part in the above left tree of parts and select the Add a staff item. You can then specify which staff you want to use in the existing score the staff must already exist in the score.
Right-clicking a staff in the tree will remove it from that part but not from the score. By default, the Original choice is selected, meaning that the suggested notes will be applied directly to the related staff.
TheRhythmic choice will in fact keep any rhythmic value present in the destination staff but will replace the note pitches by the one from the composition part. In that case, it can also use a transposition value that is added to the original note so that you can assign one part to multiple instruments in the orchestra. There are two other modes that will in fact arrange the melody already present in the score, based on the scale or the chords proposed by the suggested notes.
The Version number is by default 1. Pizzicato handles several versions of the music in one measure.
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Measure versions The right part of that window shows the following options: It is the same as manually moving the squares at the beginning and end of the upper green band. You can also specify here the exact point inside the measure, with units units is one quarter note. By default it is set to Based on all staves. The rhythmic structure determines the time slots where the program will do the analysis to suggest missing notes. Each time slot is shown by a green square above it.
The program only takes into consideration the notes that begin on a time slot for the analysis. For instance, if you have a melody with the following time slots arrangements, only the notes marked in red will be taken into account and the others will be considered as transition notes: Here are the various possible ways to structure time in the composition area: It covers the whole measure and only one note will be generated for each part.
Rhythmic value - A time slot will be created for each multiple of the given rhythmic value. Click on that button and the following dialog appears: This is mainly used for the exercises in couterpoint.
You can determine the species of the counterpoint whole notes against whole notes, half notes against whole notes, For each voice, you can select one or more of the above rhythmic patterns, simply by clicking on them.
If there are fixed notes in the score, they will not be modified by the rhythmic patterns. You can select the basic duration the whole note by default. The Rules section of the main window contains the list of rules that are present in the composition module: Some of the rules are expressed as limitations like direct and parallel fifths and octaves and some contain items that can be used, like chords.
You can disable one specific rule by simply clicking on it. The square becomes red, showing that the rule will be ignored for analysis. The set of rules used is determined when you create the composition template or add it to an existing score, but you can at any time select another set by clicking in the Change the rules In the more advanced versions of Pizzicato Pizzicato Professional and Pizzicato Composition Pro , you can examine the details of the rules and even modify or add new sets of rules.
Doing so is however a more complex process and requires a good knowledge of music and computer logic. This manual does not detail the structure of the rules but any person with good knowledge of music and computer logic can examine the existing rules and their definitions so as to modify them or create new sets of rules. The Errors section of the window lets you click on the Check error. The program analyses the composition area against the active rules and make a list of the errors found.
By clicking on one error in the list, the corresponding notes are shown in red in the score itself: These options are available in the File, Export Now that we have explained every option of the composition module, we will demonstrate their use with a few practical examples.
To open an example, click on the second blue button present in the upper left part of the main score window. Expand the Examples folder and go down with the scroll bar to find the example. Here is how to find a harmony based on it. Set the number of measures to 4, so that it comprises the whole score. Click OK. The composition area appears as well as the composition window. Click on the first empty green square, above the first note: Then browse through the solutions with the arrow icon that appears just to the right.
Each time, listen to the solution by using the icon it starts and stops the playback. There can be in fact more solutions, but as the default limit is set to 10, you can for instance increase the limit to by setting the slider entitled Number of solutions to find in the composition window. Click again on the icon under the green square and you will see that this time the program has found 37 solutions: As it is the first chord of the score and as we are in the key of C Major, the chord is always built on the first degree and the program only changes the way the 3 parts can be arranged on that chord.
Check some of the suggested possibilities and select one that sounds good to you for a first entry. Here is one example, but you can choose the one you prefer: From here on, you can either continue step by step or with a small group of notes. The next 3 notes are then covered and by clicking the icon, the program displays the first solution amongst found.
By browsing them and listening to them, select the one that gives the best sounding melody in the upper voice you can use any other criteria, but the upper melody is quite important. Here is an example: You can of course also directly decide and test notes of the melody. Let's say that by hearing the above solution, you suddenly feel that the next note should be the G note above the staff.
Let's try it. Then browse the solutions and find which one you prefer. Here would be an example: There may be cases when you select a note that will prevent any solution to be found. See the section entitled What to do if the program finds no solution. Here is what you could get: Once you have decided that this solution is the final one, then you can click the Set button and all notes become fixed displayed in black.
You can close the composition window and even delete it with the icon.
The score now displays: Set the number of measures to 4, so that it comprise the whole score. The program has automatically selected that it will happen on 2 staves. Click OK and listen to the example. This musical phrase is written in the key of D with two sharps and an A appears in measure 3, which can be seen as the augmented 7th degree of the relative minor scale of B.
As you can see it in the green band, the program has detected the scale change the key signature was forced into D Major and not B minor: Drag the beginning of the composition area slightly to the right until it starts with the first note, like this: If you do not shift it, the program would suggest nothing for the first rest, but the point is that the beginning rules would then no more be applied to the first chord of the composition and could then start on any degree.
You can do it, but you have to know this. As you can feel when you listen to this phrase, it is just the beginning of a phrase. The last note does not finalize the musical idea. For this reason, we will disable the end rules by checking the corresponding box Disable end rules.
You can do that whenever you analyse only a part of a phrase. If the phrase is not the beginning of an idea, you can also disable the beginning rules. The program proposes several time slots to do an analysis.
We will use the custom time structure. You can now remove the time slots you do not want, by right-clicking the corresponding empty green squares and selecting Remove this time marker, to get the following: Let's change the sound used for this piece to string ensembles. Click the Sound selection By selecting the first three time slots you will see that the program suggests solutions, which means there are probably more as is the maximum.
In this case, to keep a close control of the direction of the music, it better to go step by step, starting with only the first time slot. The program suggests 5 solutions.
Select the one you like and continue up to the second mesure. This could result for instance in: If you go further, you will notice that the program will find no solution that satisfies the next measure. To do that, right-click in the time slot of the first beat and select Change the scale Minor scale B min.
You can then easily continue the arrangement and find a solution you like. One example would be: As this example shows, you can use the composition module to find a harmony for a part of any phrase. This may be useful if you have composed a melody with some chords, but you want to explore other possibilities.
The above melody would obviously require a second part as it leaves the listener in suspension.
The Music-Touch tool is located in the main palette Tools menu: When this tool is selected on the palette, you can click anywhere on the score and the program will play all the instruments at this location. By holding the mouse button down and moving horizontally, you can hear carefully the chord transitions, go backward and forward and even sequence chords that are not consecutive, simply to test them.
It is like a magnifying glass but for music. There is also a shortcut to use this tool without selecting it: Example 3 - Starting from an existing melody and chord progression [Professional] [Composition Light] [Composition Pro] In this example, we will examine a different situation. Here you have an existing melody as well as the chords progression. This is for instance the case when you want to custom arrange an existing song. This is a small excerpt of Michelle The Beatles: In such chord progressions, you will often find more modulations and chord variations than in scolar harmony.
If you keep the standard parameters, the program may find no solution that satisfies the rules. We will see how to handle this situation. As the melody and the chords are fixed, we do not want the program to modify them. We will use the two empty staves to create a string arrangement that will play the chords. Select 4 parts harmony - All sevenths and specify 6 measures for the composition area, with a layout of 2 staves. You need to use a set of rules that contains all the chords present, otherwise the program will not find solutions for all chords.
The above set of rules contains all major and minor chords, as well as the 5 types of seventh chords. If your melody uses other chords like 9th, you should simplify them for this type of harmonization, as this program presently only handles the sevenths chords.
This time, the green band appears below the first staff. You can adjust its vertical position by dragging one of the squares present at both sides of the band, so that it does not hide a part of the melody. Check the box entitled Take existing chords into account and disable the box entitled Take existing notes into account. As you can see, the last chord is not on the first degree which would be F and by keeping this end rule, the program could never assign an F Maj chord at the end.
We need one chord position suggestion for each original chord. You will see that there is now one time slot for each original chord. Click on the Estimate scales button, in the Solutions section of the window. The score displays the proposed scales in the green band: The scales are proposed so that all the notes of the original chords will correspond.
There may be other possible configurations and you can modify them by right-clicking on the time slots and modify or delete a scale. This would also be the case if we were using a modulating melody inside the composition area.
The program would try to find the best scales that contain the notes of the melody. This is an important step to remember, as if you do not adjust the scales, the program may never find solutions for the time slots where the scale is not adjusted to the notes or chords. This is because this type of chords progression goes outside the standard range of classical harmony and for this type of music, some rules are too restrictive. In this case, there are many abrupt and non prepared in the classical harmony meaning modulations that will generate several kind of errors and chromatic passages that are not allowed in classical harmony.
We need to disable some of the classical rules that are likely to cause problem. You can do it step by step or in one time. As the chords are already precisely defined, there is less interest to work the arrangement step by step than when you compose a new song. However, you may do it for instance to control the way the voices are lead the general aspect of the chords: You can force it to propose solutions by setting the slider Number of solutions to find to and by setting the research method to Integral research in the menu that displays by default Automatic research.
It may take more time, but the program will then propose different solutions and you can browse through them in the frame entitled Selection of displayed solution. There can be hundreds of variations and one of them is for instance: You can also influence the range of the arrangement, simply by adjusting the vertical thick green bars found to the left of the composition area. There is one bar for each voice of the arrangement.
In this example, we will first add a bass line playing with eighth notes.
Harmony Book for Beginners (Orem, Preston Ware)
Choose the 2 parts counterpoint with 4 measures, on two staves and click OK. If you click on Compute you will notice that the program will find no solution, showing only rests in the second staff. Click on the first error line and the program tells you that there is one note that is not in the range of the voice.
Original ranges come from the range of the 4 voices in a choir. These are not absolute rules and they depend on the instruments being used. Here we are using the flute and the bassoon, so we can modify the range to fit the melody. Extend the upper limit of the range by dragging the top handle of the thick green bar visible in front of the first measure, so that it reaches over the faulty note.
Click the Check button again and the error will disappear. If you look at the range of both instruments, they are quite far away from each other, which means that most combination of two notes will easily goes beyond one octave. There is a rule in the counterpoint that prevents more than one octave between consecutive voices.
In this kind of arrangement, it does not matter, as we are building a bass line against a melodic line and the distance between them may be arbitrary. In the Rules section, disable the Distance between the voices check box. Now try again the Computebutton and there will be solutions, for instance like this: You can also work it step by step, which would be more creative, as you can influence the way the bass is playing all over the melody.
Let's say we would like only eighth notes at the bass, so that the bass line would give the feeling of a regular flow against a changing melody. This divides all measures into 6 time slots. Then click on theCustom rhythmic structure and delete the last two time slots we want the bass line to finish at the same time as the main melody.
You can do this simply by right-clicking a time slot and selecting Remove this time marker. The time slots are now displayed as follows: If you ask the program to suggest new solutions, you will get a continuous bass line using eighth notes except for the second part of the last measure. If you listen to it, you may notice that the bass line for that instrument may be too low in pitch.
You can adjust the range of the bass so that it occupies a higher range and you can get a solution like this: Click on the selection tool in the main palette and click in front of the second staff. The staff is selected. Go in Edit, Apply symbols Once the composition is finished, remember that you can click on the Set button to fix all green notes. You can also remove the composition module and only the result of your work is left in the score.
Please note that this type of exercise can be done while interactively composing the melody, so that both melody and bass line progress according to what you feel. We will first add two voices with different time structures. This is one example on how to use the various species of counterpoint. Check the Figured bass and the Display degreecheck boxes. For the upper voice, select two half notes and for the middle voice select half notes in syncopation to select or unselect one rhythmic pattern, simply click on it: As this type of counterpoint can accept dissonances, you can enable dissonances by checking the Use dissonances box in theSolutions section of the window.
Berklee College Of Music - Harmony 1.pdf
The first two types are selected by default, but you can here also check the last one, Suspension which means that the program is able to use a syncopation for the middle voice, as show above that becomes dissonant in the next measure. In practise, it is better to use the step by step method, to have a better control on the direction of the music. Notice that the use of dissonances is shown by drawing the notes in orange.
You can influence the general solution by adjusting or moving the ranges of the two voices. If you want to have them on all time slots, select another staff for the placement of the figured bass. In this case the first staff would show it for each time slot.
If you compose for a group or for a whole orchestra, each part coming from the composition module may in fact be automatically assigned to one or more other instruments. We will use a simple example with the first empty staff of this example and we will use the rhythmic transfer mode with a transposition of one octave up.
In the lower part of the window, change the Original choice to Rhythmic and set the transposition value to 12 in semitones, so one octave up. The Rhythmic choice means that the program will use the rhythmic values that exist in the given staff the ones you entered here above and will change the pitches of the notes according to the results of the composition module.
For the above example, it would be: The idea is that the main parts can then be assigned to various groups of instruments. You can even do this before starting to compose or arrange, so that you can directly hear the combination resulting from the rhythymic transfer to the other instruments. To introduce new rhythmic values and rhythmic variations, you can also use the rhythmic variations dialog box, as explained in the Helpmenu, in Intuitive music composition, Composition tools - Rhythmic variations.
Example 6 - Checking for errors in an existing score [Professional] [Composition Light] [Composition Pro] You can use the program to correct existing exercises, from a MIDI file or by simply entering the notes with the note tools, as you yourself work on a harmony or counterpoint exercise.
Let's open an existing score and check for any error according to the rules. Enable the Figured bass and Display degree check boxes.
The program will find several "faults". As this composition comes from one of the big masters of music, this may seem strange and requires a few comments here. First of all, this program only implements a simplified set of the main rules of harmony.
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There are several special cases and exceptions to these rules and even then, they vary amongst different treaties on harmony. But most importantly, harmony comes from the observation of the masters of the past.
General rules and more specific cases have been deduced from the music already composed. That does not mean that each master piece of the past could have been written from that set of rules. They can serve as guiding rules and should never prevent nice music to be written. If you prepare an examination in harmony, you better learn the rules and be able to apply them.
This program will help you in this way. But if you simply want to compose freely, then use the rules as a guide and never as a master.
Click the Import button in the next dialog box and you get: It is a melody extracted from Chopin. We will copy the content and use it in a 2 parts counterpoint score. The measures are now in the clipboard. Select the 2 parts counterpoint on 2 staves. Set 8 measures per system in the popup menu and click on Create. Select the piano instrument for both staves. The measures are copied into the score and you get: This will give us three notes per measure, as a regular beat.
Check the Figured bass and Display degree boxes. Disable the rule 11 as well as rule 4, as the distance between the two voices may be greater than one octave. Extend the range of the melody in its upper part by moving the top handle of the thick vertical green bar. Try to adjust the range of the bass so that it has less space. This will force the bass line into a smaller range with less motion.
Here is one possible solution: As you may expect, the harmony is not the one that Chopin used. Using the Compute button for a one shot suggestion is of course leaving the direction of the music to chance. Using the step by step method or measure by measure would let you give more direction to the resulting music.
What to do if the program finds no solution [Professional] [Composition Light] [Composition Pro] As we have shown in the above examples, there will be many cases when the program will not find any solution to your request.
This always means that there are too many constraints used and here is a list of things to check and correct so that the program can find solutions. First of all, check if the notes present in the score the original melody, the bass line or any note that you entered yourself are not in conflict with one of the active rules.
Go in the Errors panel and check. If notes are outside the range, simply extend the range of that voice to include all notes. If a specific rule shows an error and you want to keep your melody, then simply disable that rule. If the composition area does not cover a whole musical phrase, it often happens that the part of the phrase covered will not start or end on the first degree of the scale, which will result in an error.
This may even be true for a whole musical phrase. In that case, disable one or both of the two check boxes entitled Disable beginning rules and Disable end rules. Be sure that the scales displayed in the green band correspond to the existing notes and chords.
In most cases, the program should find valid scales, but you may sometimes find more logical scales that will provide more possible solutions. To extend possible solutions, you can disable the rule entitled Distance between the voices. By default, the interval between two consecutive voices is no greater than the octave except for the bass in four parts harmony.
This may sometimes prevent any solution from being found, specifically in free composition. In the same order of idea, you can increase the range of the voices.
It will help the program to find more possible combinations that may satisfy the rules. When using the program outside the frame of an harmony or counterpoint exercise, you may disable some of the rules regarding the melodic intervals. In the Solutions panel, you can decrease the global and local minimal evaluations required.
When using chord progressions with much scale modulations and seventh chords the set of rules with all sevenths , you can disable one or more of the following rule numbers: By using the step by step mode for a given note, you can click the Compute button while holding down the CTRL key of the computer. This will force the program to suggest all possible solutions for that time slot, not taking into account what is before or after that chord.
This may help you to explore the area where the program cannot find any solution, so that you can locate the reason why no solutions were found. By checking for errors you can then see what is possibly the cause and find which rule to disable. As a last resort, you can also disable most of the rules. But never disable rule number one. The use of chords is also present in the rules, like for instance Fifth chords.
If you disable that rule, then the program can no more use fifth chords. By disabling everything except rule 1, then no solutions are possible anyway, as there are no more chords to use. If everything else fails, then there may be indeed no solution to your request! Related Papers.
Alternative Notation: By Dominique Vandenneucker. Jazz Theory 4th Revised edition. By Omar Valenzuela. By Joseph Chambers. Music Theory for Computer Musicians. By Zandro Gil. Music Composition For Dummies. By Aleksander Belec. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.This may help you to explore the area where the program cannot find any solution, so that you can locate the reason why no solutions were found.
So both aspects are intimately related and not strictly separable in practice. As a last resort, you can also disable most of the rules.
This will give us three notes per measure, as a regular beat. In the Rules section, disable the Distance between the voices check box. If you compose for a group or for a whole orchestra, each part coming from the composition module may in fact be automatically assigned to one or more other instruments.
Select 4 parts harmony - All sevenths and specify 6 measures for the composition area, with a layout of 2 staves. If everything else fails, then there may be indeed no solution to your request! Doing so is however a more complex process and requires a good knowledge of music and computer logic.
The last note does not finalize the musical idea.