INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM PDF
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As a result of Islamic invasion and Islamic education, there was disturbance and dislocation in the Indian educational system of. Pathshalas, Maths, Temples and . The educational system in India has seen major transformations from the the distance education system and the open learning system came into being. The present paper examines education system in India, its structure, its functioning . Files/Articles/ Indian_Education wildlifeprotection.info z.
In addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and follow different teaching schedules. They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in lower classes.
The CBSE also has affiliated schools in 21 other countries mainly catering to the needs of the Indian population there. It seems that this was started as a replacement for the Cambridge School Certificate.
The main purpose of the conference was to consider the replacement of the overseas Cambridge School Certificate Examination by an All India Examination. In October at the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate's Examination in India and to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its examination to the needs of the country.
The inaugural meeting of the Council was held on 3rd November, The Council was listed in the Delhi School Education Act , as a body conducting public examinations. Now a large number of schools across the country are affiliated to this Council. All these are private schools and generally cater to children from wealthy families.
Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 years of schooling after high school and again at the end of 12 years after higher secondary.
Admission to the 11th class is normally based on the performance in this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot of pressure on the child to perform well, there have been suggestions to remove the examination at the end of 10 years. Exclusive Schools In addition to the above, there are a relatively small number of schools that follow foreign curricula such as the so-called Senior Cambridge, though this was largely superseded by the ICSE stream elsewhere.
Some of these schools also offer the students the opportunity to sit for the ICSE examinations. These are usually very expensive residential schools where some of the Indians working abroad send their children. They normally have fabulous infrastructure, low student-teacher ratio and very few students. Many of them have teachers from abroad. There are also other exclusive schools such as the Doon School in Dehradun that take in a small number of students and charge exorbitant fees.
Apart from all of these, there are a handful of schools around the country, such as the Rishi Valley school in Andhra Pradesh, that try to break away from the normal education system that promotes rote learning and implement innovative systems such as the Montessori method. It would be interesting and instructive to do a study on what impact the kind of school has had on the life of their alumni.
State Schools Each state in the country has its own Department of Education that runs its own school system with its own textbooks and evaluation system. Each state has three kinds of schools that follow the state curriculum. The government runs its own schools in land and buildings owned by the government and paying the staff from its own resources.
These are generally known as government schools. The fees are quite low in such schools. Then there are privately owned schools with their own land and buildings. Here the fees are high and the teachers are paid by the management. Such schools mostly cater to the urban middle class families. The third kind consists of schools that are provided grant-in-aid by the government, though the school was started by a private agency in their own land and buildings. The grant-in-aid is meant to help reduce the fees and make it possible for poor families to send their children.
In some states like Kerala, these schools are very similar to government schools since the teachers are paid by the government and the fees are the same as in government schools.
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Fairfax, CA: Edutracks, 6 2 , Scorza, D. It should be education: Critical pedagogy normalized as academic excellence. Demand for technical certification is increasing every year among job seekers and WEBNext Labs has been imparting free technical education on web technologies  and IoT Internet of Things . Percentage of schools with separate girls toilet have increased from Modern education in India is often criticised for being based on rote learning rather than problem solving.
New Indian Express says that Indian Education system seems to be producing zombies since in most of the schools students seemed to be spending majority of their time in preparing for competitive exams rather than learning or playing. Following independence, India viewed education as an effective tool for bringing social change through community development.
Setty and Ross elaborate on the role of such programmes, themselves divided further into individual-based , community based , or the Individual-cum-community-based , in which microscopic levels of development are overseen at village level by an appointed worker:. The community development programmes comprise agriculture, animal husbandry, cooperation, rural industries, rural engineering consisting of minor irrigation, roads, buildings , health and sanitation including family welfare, family planning, women welfare, child care and nutrition, education including adult education, social education and literacy, youth welfare and community organisation.
In each of these areas of development there are several programmes, schemes and activities which are additive, expanding and tapering off covering the total community, some segments, or specific target populations such as small and marginal farmers, artisans, women and in general people below the poverty line.
Despite some setbacks the rural education programmes continued throughout the s, with support from private institutions. The government continued to view rural education as an agenda that could be relatively free from bureaucratic backlog and general stagnation. Several foundations, such as the Rural Development Foundation Hyderabad , actively build high-quality rural schools, but the number of students served is small.
Education in rural India is valued differently from in an urban setting, with lower rates of completion. The estimated number of children who have never attended school in India is near million which reflects the low completion levels. Women have a much lower literacy rate than men. Far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools, and many of them drop out.
This mission aims to bring down female illiteracy by half of its present level. Since the Indian government has tried to provide incentives for girls' school attendance through programmes for midday meals, free books, and uniforms. This welfare thrust raised primary enrollment between and In the National Policy on Education decided to restructure education in tune with the social framework of each state, and with larger national goals.
It emphasised that education was necessary for democracy, and central to the improvement of women's condition. The new policy aimed at social change through revised texts, curricula, increased funding for schools, expansion in the numbers of schools, and policy improvements.
Emphasis was placed on expanding girls' occupational centres and primary education; secondary and higher education; and rural and urban institutions.
The report tried to connect problems like low school attendance with poverty, and the dependence on girls for housework and sibling day care. The National Literacy Mission also worked through female tutors in villages. Although the minimum marriage age is now eighteen for girls, many continue to be married much earlier. Therefore, at the secondary level, female drop-out rates are high. Sita Anantha Raman also mentions that while the educated Indian women workforce maintains professionalism, the men outnumber them in most fields and, in some cases, receive higher income for the same positions.
The education of women in India plays a significant role in improving livings standards in the country [ citation needed ].
A higher female literacy rate improves the quality of life both at home and outside the home, by encouraging and promoting education of children, especially female children, and in reducing the infant mortality rate [ citation needed ]. Several studies have shown that a lower level of women literacy rates results in higher levels of fertility and infant mortality, poorer nutrition, lower earning potential and the lack of an ability to make decisions within a household.
A survey that was conducted in India showed results which support the fact that infant mortality rate was inversely related to female literacy rate and educational level. In India, there is a large disparity between female literacy rates in different states. In India, higher education is defined as the education of an age group between 18 and 24, and is largely funded by the government. In comparison, however, over half the students studying Education are women.
In January , the Government of India decided to withdraw Deemed university status from as many as 44 institutions. The Government claimed in its affidavit that academic considerations were not being kept in mind by the management of these institutions and that "they were being run as family fiefdoms".
In the Indian education system, a teacher's success is loosely defined. It is either based on a student's success or based on the years of teaching experience, both of which do not necessarily correlate to a teacher's skill set or competencies. The management of an institution could thereby be forced to promote teachers based on the grade level they teach or their seniority, both of which are often not an indicator of a good teacher.
However, the skills and competencies that are required for each of them vary and a great teacher may not be a great manager.
Since teachers do not see their own growth and success in their own hands, they often do not take up any professional development. Increased competition to get seats into reputed colleges has given rise to private coaching institutes in India. Private coaching institutes are of two types: There are many online coaching centres and apps available in the market and their usage is growing, especially in tier 2 metro cities.
Kota in Rajasthan is the called the capital of engineering and medical colleges' entrance's coaching sector. Coaching classes are blamed for the neglect of school education by students.
Corruption in Indian education system has been eroding the quality of education and has been creating long-term negative consequences for the society. Educational corruption in India is considered as one of the major contributors to domestic black money.
Grade inflation has become an issue in Indian secondary education. In CBSE , a 95 percent aggregate is 21 times as prevalent today as it was in , and a 90 percent close to nine times as prevalent. In the ISC Board , a 95 percent is almost twice as prevalent today as it was in CBSE decided to lead by example and promised not to inflate its results. But although the results have seen a small correction, the board has clearly not discarded the practice completely.
Almost 6. Following India's independence, a number of rules were formulated for the backward Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes of India. In , a list identifying Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was published by the central government. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are provided for in many of India's educational programmes.
India's minorities, especially the ones considered 'educationally backward' by the government, are provided for in the amendment of the Indian National Policy on Education NPE. Article 45, of the Constitution of India originally stated:.
The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
This article was a directive principle of state policy within India, effectively meaning that it was within a set of rules that were meant to be followed in spirit and the government could not be held to court if the actual letter was not followed. Following initiatives by the Supreme Court of India during the s the 93rd amendment bill suggested three separate amendments to the Indian constitution: The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in a such manner as the State may, by law, determine.
Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years: The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of sixteen years. The bill was passed unanimously in the Lok Sabha , the lower house of the Indian parliament , on 28 November The State shall promote, with special care, the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes , and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation'.
Other provisions for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes can be found in Articles , , , — As a part of the tenth Five-year Plan — , the central government of India outlined an expenditure of This higher allocation was required to implement the recent legislation 'Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, However, even after five years of implementation of NCMP, not much progress has been seen on this front.
Expenditure on education has steadily risen from 0. However, it declined to 3. There is a definite need to step-up again. As a proportion of total government expenditure, it has declined from around Due to a declining priority of education in the public policy paradigm in India, there has been an exponential growth in the private expenditure on education also.
Education in India
Takshasila in modern-day Pakistan was the earliest recorded centre of higher learning in India from possibly 8th Century BCE, and it is debatable whether it could be regarded a university or not in modern sense, since teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Taxila, in contrast to the later Nalanda university in eastern India.
Nalanda was the oldest university-system of education in the world in the modern sense of university. Secular institutions cropped up along Buddhist monasteries. These institutions imparted practical education, e.
A number of urban learning centres became increasingly visible from the period between BCE to CE. The important urban centres of learning were Nalanda in modern-day Bihar and Manassa in Nagpur, among others. Chanakya , a Brahmin teacher, was among the most famous teachers, associated with founding of Mauryan Empire. Sammanas and Brahmin gurus historically offered education by means of donations, rather than charging fees or the procurement of funds from students or their guardians.
Later, stupas, temples also became centres of education; religious education was compulsory, but secular subjects were also taught. Students were required to be brahmacaris or celibates. The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform.
The priest class, the Sammanas , were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior class, the Kshatriya , were trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business class, the Vaishya , were taught their trade and the working class of the Shudras was generally deprived of educational advantages.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Education in the country of India. For other uses, see Indian school. List of schools. Main article: Higher education in India. Main articles: List of Indian institutions of higher education , Institutes of National Importance , and Autonomous institutes.
Literacy in India. Women in India. Further information: Capitation fee. History of education in South Asia. Retrieved 10 October Participation in education". World Bank. Retrieved 21 August Retrieved 10 December University Analytics. Archived from the original on 8 December The Hindu. Sector outlook" PDF.
Retrieved 23 January What needs to change? Retrieved Governance Now. National Council of Educational Research and Training. A Game of Numbers? India Today. The new class structure". Retrieved on 21 March Archived from the original PDF on 20 October Only then "the teacher is 'free' to focus on self-development" McGrath A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: Kirti Kapur their attention directly to their students' affective constructs, and an even greater number of teachers fail to develop them.
There would reduce unnecessary rush to higher has been some effort both by the education. The educational environment is not confirmed to the classroom alone; instead it extends in to the home and the community and around the world.
Learning is generally defined as a permanent change in behavior resulting from experience, and nothing best facilitates the development of this experience than ideas rooted in different modes that match individual preferences and abilities as shown by MI theory.
On completion of pre-primary education, the children are sent to the primary stage but pre-primary education in India is not a fundamental right. The learners tick the option based on their understanding For question and answer practice the learner must be trained to pay attention to what words speaker is emphasizing; as stressed word contains meaning.
This means that schools will be able to modify their curricula and develop better assessments that are more applicable to individual lives and survival needs in a more scientific manner.
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