HISTORY OF URBAN FORM BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION PDF
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For example, a university node may attract well-educated residents, pizzerias, and bookstores, whereas an airport may attract hotels and warehouses. Incompatible activities will avoid clustering in the same area. Irregular Pattern The irregular pattern model was developed to explain urban structure in the Third World. It attempts to model the lack of planning found in many rapidly built Third World cities. This model includes blocks with no fixed order; urban structure is not related to an urban center or CBD.
In this context, urban structure is concerned with the arrangement of the CBD, industrial and residential areas, and open space. CBDs usually have very small resident populations, but populations are increasing as younger professional and business workers move into city center apartments. An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development. They are intended to attract business by concentrating dedicated infrastructure to reduce the per-business expenses.
They also set aside industrial uses from urban areas to reduce the environmental and social impact of industrial uses and to provide a distinct zone of environmental controls specific to industrial needs. Urban open spaces provide citizens with recreational, ecological, aesthetic value. They can range from highly maintained environments to natural landscapes. Commonly open to public access, they may be privately owned. Urban open spaces offer a reprieve from the urban environment and can add ecological value, making citizens more aware of their natural surroundings and providing nature to promote biodiversity.
Open spaces offer aesthetic value for citizens who enjoy nature, cultural value by providing space for concerts or art shows, and functional value—for example, by helping to control runoff and prevent flooding. The Process of Urbanization Urbanization is the process of a population shift from rural areas to cities, often motivated by economic factors.
Learning Objectives Analyze the proces of urbanization and its effects on economics and the environment in society Key Takeaways Key Points Urbanization may be driven by local and global economic and social changes, and is generally a product of modernization and industrialization. Urbanization has economic and environmental effects. Economically, urbanization drives up prices, especially real estate, which can force original residents to move to less-desirable neighborhoods.
Recently in developed countries, sociologists have observed suburbanization and counterurbanization, or movement away from cities, which may be driven by transportation infrastructure, or social factors like racism. Key Terms suburbanization: A term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities; one of the many causes of the increase in urban sprawl. Urbanization and rural flight Urbanization is the process of a population shift from rural areas to cities. Urbanization tends to correlate positively with industrialization.
With the promise of greater employment opportunities that come from industrialization, people from rural areas will go to cities in pursuit of greater economic rewards.
These factors negatively affect the economy of small- and middle-sized farms and strongly reduce the size of the rural labor market.
Rural flight is exacerbated when the population decline leads to the loss of rural services such as business enterprises and schools , which leads to greater loss of population as people leave to seek those features. As more and more people leave villages and farms to live in cities, urban growth results. The rapid growth of cities like Chicago in the late nineteenth century and Mumbai a century later can be attributed largely to rural-urban migration.
This kind of growth is especially commonplace in developing countries. Urbanization occurs naturally from individual and corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in commuting, while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, entertainment, and transportation.
Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and marketplace competition. Due to their high populations, urban areas can also have more diverse social communities than rural areas, allowing others to find people like them. Megacities Reflect Growing Urbanization Trend — YouTube: In the developing world, huge cities with sprawling slums have developed as agriculture and rural occupations have been supplanted by mechanized industries.
Economic and Environmental Effects of Urbanization Urbanization has significant economic and environmental effects on cities and surrounding areas. As city populations grow, they increase the demand for goods and services of all kinds, pushing up prices of these goods and services, as well as the price of land. As land prices rise, the local working class may be priced out of the real estate market and pushed into less desirable neighborhoods — a process known as gentrification.
Growing cities also alter the environment. In rural areas, the ground helps regulate temperatures by using a large part of the incoming solar energy to evaporate water in vegetation and soil. This evaporation, in turn, has a cooling effect. During the day, cities experience higher surface temperatures because urban surfaces produce less evaporative cooling.
Additional city heat is given off by vehicles and factories, as well as industrial and domestic heating and cooling units.
Together, these effects can raise city temperatures by 2 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit or 1 to 6 degrees Celsius. Suburbanization and Counterurbanization Recently in developed countries, sociologists have observed suburbanization and counterurbanization, or movement away from cities.
These patterns may be driven by transportation infrastructure, or social factors like racism. In developed countries, people are able to move out of cities while still maintaining many of the advantages of city life for instance, improved communications and means of transportation. In fact, counterurbanization appears most common among the middle and upper classes who can afford to buy their own homes. Race also plays a role in American suburbanization.
During World War I, the massive migration of African Americans from the South resulted in an even greater residential shift toward suburban areas. In the United States, suburbanization began in earnest after World War II, when soldiers returned from war and received generous government support to finance new homes.
Suburbs, which are residential areas on the outskirts of a city, were less crowded and had a lower cost of living than cities. Suburbs grew dramatically in the s when the U. The wealthiest individuals began living in nice housing far in rural areas as opposed to forms.
Suburbanization may be a new urban form. Rather than densely populated centers, cities may become more spread out, composed of many interconnected smaller towns. Interestingly, the modern U. Urban Patterns The U. Census Bureau classifies areas as urban or rural based on population size and density. The U. Key Terms population density: The average number of people who live on each square mile or kilometer of land.
For example, city governments often use political boundaries to delineate what counts as a city. Other definitions may consider total population size or population density. Different definitions may also set various thresholds, so that in some cases, a town of just 2, may count as an urban city, whereas in other contexts, a city may be defined as having at least 50, people.
Using this sort of definition, in , the U. Census Bureau. Urban areas are delineated without regard to political boundaries. Because this definition does not consider political boundaries, it is often used as a more accurate gauge of the size of a city than the number of people who live within the city limits. Often, these two numbers are not the same. For example, the city of Greenville, South Carolina has a city population under 60, and an urbanized area population of over ,, while Greensboro, North Carolina has a city population over , and an urbanized area population of around , In the United States, the largest urban area is New York City, with over 8 million people within the city limits and over 19 million in the urban area.
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American urban areas by size: This map shows major urban areas in America. The Rural Rebound During the s and again in the s, the rural population rebounded in what appeared to be a reversal of urbanization.
Suburbanization may be driven by white flight. Counterurbanization refers, broadly, to movement away from the city, which may include urban-to-rural migration and suburbanization. Counterurbanization has created shrinking cities and attempts to better control urban growth.
Key Terms white flight: The large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries, from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban areas. The rural rebound refers to the movement away from cities to rural and suburban areas.
Urbanization tends to occur along with modernization, yet in the most developed countries many cities are now beginning to lose population. But again in the s, rural populations appeared to be gaining at the expense of cities.
Rather than moving to rural areas, most participants in the so-called the rural rebound migrated into new, rapidly growing suburbs. The rural rebound, then, may be more evidence of the importance of suburbanization as a new urban form in the most developed countries. Suburbanization Suburbanization is a general term that refers to the movement of people from cities to surrounding areas. However, the suburbanization that took place after was different from the suburbanization that had occurred earlier, after World War II.
In this more recent wave of suburbanization, people moved beyond the nearby suburbs to farther-away towns. Sociologists have invented several new categories to describe these new types of suburban towns; two of the most notable are ex-urbs and edge cities.
Often, these communities are commuter towns or bedroom communities. Commuter towns are primarily residential; most of the residents commute to jobs in the city. They are sometimes called bedroom communities because residents spend their days away in the cities and only come home to sleep.
In general, commuter towns have little commercial or industrial activity of their own, though they may contain some retail centers to serve the daily needs of residents. Although most exurbs are commuter towns, most commuter towns are not exurban. Exurbs vary in wealth and education level. In the United States, exurban areas typically have much higher college education levels than closer-in suburbs, though this is not necessarily the case in other countries.
They typically have average incomes much higher than nearby rural counties, reflecting the urban wages of their residents. Although some exurbs are quite wealthy even compared to nearer suburbs or the city itself, others have higher poverty levels than suburbs nearer the city.
This may happen especially where commuter towns form because workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work and must seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living. White Flight Sociologists have posited many explanations for counterurbanization, but one of the most debated is whether suburbanization is driven by white flight.
The term white flight was coined in the mid-twentieth century to describe suburbanization and the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries, from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban regions.
During the first half of the twentieth century, discriminatory housing policies often prevented blacks from moving to suburbs; banks and federal policy made it difficult for blacks to get the mortgages they needed to buy houses, and communities used restrictive housing covenants to exclude minorities.
White flight during this period contributed to urban decay, a process whereby a city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. Symptoms of urban decay include depopulation, abandoned buildings, high unemployment, crime, and a desolate, inhospitable landscape.
History of urban planning
More recently, the concept has been extended to newer forms of suburbanization, including migration from urban to rural areas and to exurbs. In a similar vein, some demographers have described the rural rebound, and the newest waves of suburbanization, as a form of ethnic balkanization, in which different ethnic groups not only whites sort themselves into racially homogeneous communities.
These phenomena, however, are not so clearly driven by the restrictive policies, laws, and practices that drove the white flight of the first half of the century. A Suburban Neighborhood: Suburban neighborhoods often feature large, manicured lawns. Thus, the growth of cities is a social phenomenon. Urban sprawl results when cities grow uncontrolled, expanding into rural land and making walking, public transit, or bicycling impractical.
Critics of urban life often focus on urban decay, which may be self-perpetuating, according to the broken windows theory. Urban renewal attempts to counter urban decay and restore growth.
The New Urbanism and smart growth movements both challenge the value of urban growth and expansion, and they try to improve urban life by keeping it on a human scale.
Key Terms smart growth: Smart growth programs draw urban growth boundaries to keep urban development dense and compact. New Urbanism: New Urbanism is an urban design movement that promotes walkable neighborhoods that contain a range of housing and job types. Cities are dynamic places—they grow, shrink, and change. Sociologists have developed different theories for thinking about how urban populations change. Growth Machine Theory The growth machine theory of urban growth says urban growth is driven by a coalition of interest groups who all benefit from continuous growth and expansion.
First articulated by Molotch in , growth machine theory took the dominant convention of studying urban land use and turned it on its head.
The field of urban sociology had been dominated by the idea that cities were basically containers for human action, in which actors competed among themselves for the most strategic parcels of land, and the real estate market reflected the state of that competition.
Growth machine theory reversed the course of urban theory by pointing out that land parcels were not empty fields awaiting human action, but were associated with specific interests—commercial, sentimental, and psychological. In other words, city residents were not simply competing for parcels of land; they were also trying to fulfill their particular interests and achieve specific goals. In particular, cities are shaped by the real estate interests of people whose properties gain value when cities grow.
In some cases, that growth has been poorly controlled, resulting in a phenomenon known as urban sprawl. The basic plan consisted of a central forum with city services, surrounded by a compact, rectilinear grid of streets. A river sometimes flowed near or through the city, providing water, transport, and sewage disposal. Many European towns, such as Turin , preserve the remains of these schemes, which show the very logical way the Romans designed their cities.
They would lay out the streets at right angles, in the form of a square grid. All roads were equal in width and length, except for two, which were slightly wider than the others.
The decumanus , running east—west, and the cardo , running north—south, intersected in the middle to form the centre of the grid. All roads were made of carefully fitted flag stones and filled in with smaller, hard-packed rocks and pebbles.
Bridges were constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insula , the Roman equivalent of a modern city block. As the city developed, it could eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and criss-crossed with back roads and alleys. The city may have been surrounded by a wall to protect it from invaders and to mark the city limits. Areas outside city limits were left open as farmland. At the end of each main road was a large gateway with watchtowers.
A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege, and additional watchtowers were constructed along the city walls. An aqueduct was built outside the city walls.
The development of Greek and Roman urbanisation is relatively well-known, as there are relatively many written sources, and there has been much attention to the subject since the Romans and Greeks are generally regarded as the main ancestors of modern Western culture. It should not be forgotten, though, that there were also other cultures with more or less urban settlements in Europe, primarily of Celtic origin.
The Evolution of Urban Planning in 10 Diagrams
Elburg was founded in by Arent toe Boecop, steward of the duke of Gelre. Arent seems to have acted as a private entrepreneur. He had bought a piece of land next to the existing town, and he obtained permission from his lord to extend and rebuild the town, and to resettle the population of the surrounding area, selling the house lots to the settlers.
The highly symmetrical layout is centred on a canalised river and an intersecting street. The symmetry is disturbed, however, by the church in the eastern corner and by the pre-existing street the only curved one in the whole town on the northwest side.
The corner bastions and the wide outer ditch were added in the late 16th century. After the gradual disintegration and fall of the West-Roman empire in the 5th century and the devastation by the invasions of Huns, Germanic peoples, Byzantines, Moors, Magyars, and Normans in the next five centuries, little remained of urban culture in western and central Europe. In the 10th and 11th centuries, though, there appears to have been a general improvement in the political stability and economy.
This made it possible for trade and craft to grow and for the monetary economy and urban culture to revive. Initially, urban culture recovered particularly in existing settlements, often in remnants of Roman towns and cities, but later on, ever more towns were created anew.
Meanwhile, the population of western Europe increased rapidly and the utilised agricultural area grew with it. The agricultural areas of existing villages were extended and new villages and towns were created in uncultivated areas as cores for new reclamations. Since the new centre was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing.
Caernarvon Wales. Plan by John Speed, In the 9th to 14th centuries, many hundreds of new towns were built in Europe, and many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. New towns were founded in different parts of Europe from about the 9th century on, but most of them were realised from the 12th to 14th centuries, with a peak-period at the end of the 13th.
All kinds of landlords, from the highest to the lowest rank, tried to found new towns on their estates, in order to gain economical, political or military power.
The settlers of the new towns generally were attracted by fiscal, economic, and juridical advantages granted by the founding lord, or were forced to move from elsewhere from his estates. The newly founded towns often show a marked regularity in their plan form, in the sense that the streets are often straight and laid out at right angles to one another, and that the house lots are rectangular, and originally largely of the same size.
Only in the parts of Europe where the process of urbanisation had started relatively late, as in eastern Europe, was it still to go on for one or two more centuries. It would not be until the Industrial Revolution that the same level of expansion of urban population would be reached again, although the number of newly created settlements would remain much lower than in the 12th and 13th centuries.
This model was widely imitated, reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age; "[t]he Renaissance was hypnotised by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi — was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city". The Ideal City probably by Fra Carnevale , c. The Roman archway and colosseum suggest the value of military victory and mass entertainment.
The ideal centrally planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael Sanzio , Only in ideal cities did a centrally planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael 's Sposalizio Illustration of As built, the unique example of a rationally planned quattrocento new city centre, that of Vigevano —95 , resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading.
Filarete 's ideal city, building on Leon Battista Alberti 's De re aedificatoria, was named " Sforzinda " in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a "perfect" Pythagorean figure , the circle, took no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete's manuscript. Following the bombardment of Brussels by the French troops of King Louis XIV , in which a large part of the city centre was destroyed, Governor Max Emanuel proposed using the reconstruction to completely change the layout and architectural style of the city.
His plan was to transform the medieval city into a city of the new baroque style, modeled on Turin , with a logical street layout, with straight avenues offering long, uninterrupted views flanked by buildings of a uniform size. This plan was opposed by residents and municipal authorities, who wanted a rapid reconstruction, did not have the resources for grandiose proposals, and resented what they considered the imposition of a new, foreign, architectural style.
In the actual reconstruction, the general layout of the city was conserved, but it was not identical to that before the cataclysm. Despite the necessity of rapid reconstruction and the lack of financial means, authorities did take several measures to improve traffic flow, sanitation, and the aesthetics of the city. Many streets were made as wide as possible to improve traffic flow. Enlightenment Europe and America[ edit ] During the Second French Empire , Haussmann transformed the medieval city of Paris into a modern capital, with long, straight, wide boulevards.
The planning was influenced by many factors, not the least of which was the city's history of street revolutions. Illustration of Savannah, Georgia on the Oglethorpe Plan in During this period, rulers often embarked on ambitious attempts at redesigning their capital cities as a showpiece for the grandeur of the nation.
Disasters were often a major catalyst for planned reconstruction. An exception to this was in London after the Great Fire of when, despite many radical rebuilding schemes from architects such as John Evelyn and Christopher Wren , no large-scale redesigning was achieved due to the complexities of rival ownership claims. However, improvements were made in hygiene and fire safety with wider streets, stone construction and access to the river.
The Great Fire did, however, stimulate thinking about urban design that influenced city planning in North America. The Grand Model for the Province of Carolina , developed in the aftermath of the Great Fire, established a template for colonial planning. Model of the seismically protective wooden structure, the " gaiola pombalina" pombaline cage , developed for the reconstruction of Pombaline Lower Town In contrast, after the Lisbon earthquake , King Joseph I of Portugal and his ministers immediately launched efforts to rebuild the city.
The architect Manuel da Maia boldly proposed razing entire sections of the city and "laying out new streets without restraint". This last option was chosen by the king and his minister. The Pombaline buildings were among the earliest seismically protected constructions in Europe.
An even more ambitious reconstruction was carried out in Paris. Beyond aesthetic and sanitary considerations, the wide thoroughfares facilitated troop movement and policing.The ancient Romans also employed regular orthogonal structures on which they molded their colonies.
However, grids can be dangerous because long, straight roads allow faster automobile traffic. Their approach helped give way to a new emphasis in planning on bottom-up citizen experience and input.
Incompatible activities will avoid clustering in the same area. Urbanization and rural flight Urbanization is the process of a population shift from rural areas to cities. Assignment 3 Due Books by A. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby.
Following the bombardment of Brussels by the French troops of King Louis XIV , in which a large part of the city centre was destroyed, Governor Max Emanuel proposed using the reconstruction to completely change the layout and architectural style of the city.