OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AND LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS PDF
This Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and The text is intended for use in a second year Operational Amplifiers. Lustberg, Arch. How to sell yourself: winning techniques for selling yourself— your.. These days good written commu Linear Integrated Circuit 2nd Edition. Book Details Author: Robert F. Coughlin,Frederick F. Driscoll Pages: Binding: Paperback Brand: ISBN: Download or read Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits (6th Edition) by click link below Download or read Operational Amplifiers and Linear.
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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. OpAmp n Linear IC by Coughlin - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online. analog electronics, mechatronics engineering. The operational amplifier is responsible for a dramatic and continuing revolution in those used for other linear integrated circuits and also influence the design.
Bipolars are generally better when it comes to input voltage offset, and often have lower noise. Internal circuitry of type op-amp[ edit ] A component-level diagram of the common op-amp. Sourced by many manufacturers, and in multiple similar products, an example of a bipolar transistor operational amplifier is the integrated circuit designed in by David Fullagar at Fairchild Semiconductor after Bob Widlar 's LM integrated circuit design.
Differential amplifier[ edit ] The input stage consists of a cascaded differential amplifier outlined in blue followed by a current-mirror active load. This constitutes a transconductance amplifier , turning a differential voltage signal at the bases of Q1, Q2 into a current signal into the base of Q It entails two cascaded transistor pairs, satisfying conflicting requirements. The first stage consists of the matched NPN emitter follower pair Q1, Q2 that provide high input impedance.
Basic Operational Amplifiers Linear Integrated Circuits Solutions Manual
The output sink transistor Q20 receives its base drive from the common collectors of Q15 and Q19; the level-shifter Q16 provides base drive for the output source transistor Q The transistor Q22 prevents this stage from delivering excessive current to Q20 and thus limits the output sink current. Transistor Q16 outlined in green provides the quiescent current for the output transistors, and Q17 provides output current limiting.
Biasing circuits[ edit ] Provide appropriate quiescent current for each stage of the op-amp. Differential amplifier[ edit ] The biasing circuit of this stage is set by a feedback loop that forces the collector currents of Q10 and Q9 to nearly match. Input bias current for the base of Q1 resp. At the same time, the magnitude of the quiescent current is relatively insensitive to the characteristics of the components Q1—Q4, such as hfe, that would otherwise cause temperature dependence or part-to-part variations.
Through some[ vague ] mechanism, the collector current in Q19 tracks that standing current. Output amplifier[ edit ] In the circuit involving Q16 variously named rubber diode or VBE multiplier , the 4. Then the VCB must be about 0. This small standing current in the output transistors establishes the output stage in class AB operation and reduces the crossover distortion of this stage.
Small-signal differential mode[ edit ] A small differential input voltage signal gives rise, through multiple stages of current amplification, to a much larger voltage signal on output.
Input impedance[ edit ] The input stage with Q1 and Q3 is similar to an emitter-coupled pair long-tailed pair , with Q2 and Q4 adding some degenerating impedance. The input impedance is relatively high because of the small current through Q1-Q4. The common mode input impedance is even higher, as the input stage works at an essentially constant current. This portion of the op amp cleverly changes a differential signal at the op amp inputs to a single-ended signal at the base of Q15, and in a way that avoids wastefully discarding the signal in either leg.
To see how, notice that a small negative change in voltage at the inverting input Q2 base drives it out of conduction, and this incremental decrease in current passes directly from Q4 collector to its emitter, resulting in a decrease in base drive for Q On the other hand, a small positive change in voltage at the non-inverting input Q1 base drives this transistor into conduction, reflected in an increase in current at the collector of Q3. Thus, the increase in Q3 emitter current is mirrored in an increase in Q6 collector current; the increased collector currents shunts more from the collector node and results in a decrease in base drive current for Q Output amplifier[ edit ] Output transistors Q14 and Q20 are each configured as an emitter follower, so no voltage gain occurs there; instead, this stage provides current gain, equal to the hfe of Q14 resp.
The output impedance is not zero, as it would be in an ideal op-amp, but with negative feedback it approaches zero at low frequencies. Overall open-loop voltage gain[ edit ] The net open-loop small-signal voltage gain of the op amp involves the product of the current gain hfe of some 4 transistors.
Other linear characteristics[ edit ] Small-signal common mode gain[ edit ] The ideal op amp has infinite common-mode rejection ratio , or zero common-mode gain. The 30 pF capacitor stabilizes the amplifier via Miller compensation and functions in a manner similar to an op-amp integrator circuit.
Operational amplifiers and linear integrated circuits
This internal compensation is provided to achieve unconditional stability of the amplifier in negative feedback configurations where the feedback network is non-reactive and the closed loop gain is unity or higher.
The potentiometer is adjusted such that the output is null midrange when the inputs are shorted together. A device, usually consisting of a pair of voltage comparators, in which output indicates whether the measured signal is within the voltage range bounded by two different thresholds an "upper" threshold and a "lower" threshold. List the types of comparators. Inverting comparator Non-inverting comparator 4.
Differentiate Schmitt trigger and comparator. A Schmitt trigger is a comparator with a small amount of positive feedback applied to create a hysteresis for the input level. What are the limitations of an ideal active differentiator? At high frequency, differentiators may become unstable and break into oscillation. The input impedance i. State the important features of an instrumentation amplifier.
How does the precision rectifier differ from the conventional rectifier? These rectifiers are used to rectify very small voltages or currents for which the diode never gets forward biased in the conventional one. What are the advantages of active filters over the passive filters? Active filters use amplifying elements, especially op amps, with resistors and capacitors in their feedback loops, to synthesize the desired filter characteristics.
Active filters can have high input impedance, low output impedance, and virtually any arbitrary gain. They are also usually easier to design than passive filters. Possibly their most important attribute is that they lack inductors, thereby reducing the problems associated with those components.
Draw the freq. What is an antilog amplifier? Draw the circuit of an antilog amplifier. Antilog amplifier is a decoding circuit to convert a logarithmically encoded signal back to the real signal. What is a V to C convertor? A transconductance amplifier gm amplifier puts out a current proportional to its input voltage. In network analysis, the transconductance amplifier is defined as a voltage controlled current source VCCS.
For direct current, transconductance is defined as follows: Draw the circuit of an integrator. Why integrators are preferred over differentiators in analog computers? Integrators are more linear than the differentiators and the integrators reduce the power consumption than the high pass filter. PART-B 1. With neat sketch explain the operation of a 3 op-amp instrumentation amplifier. Explain the operation of precision full wave rectifier with neat sketch.
With a neat circuit, explain the operation of Schmitt trigger. With neat diagram explain logarithmic amplifier and antilogarithmic amplifier. With neat diagram explain the application of op-amp as precision rectifier, clipper and clamper. What are the limitations of an ordinary op-amp differentiator?
Draw and explain the circuit of a practical differentiator that will eliminate these limitations. Using log amplifiers construct a multiplier circuit. Explain the working of an active integrator. Assume all other relevant details. Draw the circuit diagram of op-amp differentiator, integrator and derive an expression for the output in terms of the input. With the help of circuits and necessary equations, explain how log and antilog computations are performed using IC Explain in detail about voltage series feedback amplifier.
Derive the gain of inverting and non-inverting. Explain and derive the condition for DC-characteristics of an operational amplifier. List out the blocks of PLL. Low pass filter c. Error amplifier d. Voltage controlled oscillator 2.
Define the following terms related to PLL, a Capture range The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an input signal is called the capture range.
It is expressed as a percentage of the VCO free running frequency. Define voltage to frequency conversion factor of VCO. Mention the applications of analog multipliers. Voltage squarer 2. Frequency doubler 3. Voltage divider 4. Square rooter 5. Phase angle detector 6. Rectifier 6. List out the applications of PLL. Frequency translation c. AM detection d. FM demodulation e.
FSK demodulation. Define phase transfer conversion coefficient of PLL. Briefly write on frequency synthesizers. A frequency synthesizer is an electronic system for generating any of a range of frequencies from a single fixed time base or oscillator. They are found in many modern devices, including radio receivers, mobile telephones, radiotelephones, walkie-talkies, CB radios, satellite receivers, GPS systems, etc.
A frequency synthesizer can combine frequency multiplication, frequency division, and frequency mixing the frequency mixing process generates sum and difference frequencies operations to produce the desired output signal. Explain how a frequency doubler can be realized using analog multiplier. The multiplication of two sine waves of the same frequency, but of possibly different amplitudes and phase allows doubling a frequency using an analog multiplier.
What is a compander IC? The term companding means compressing and expanding.
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In a communication system, the audio signal is compressed in the transmitter and expanded in the receiver. What is a peak detector?
A peak detector is a series connection of a diode and a capacitor outputting a DC voltage equal to the peak value of the applied AC signal. Describe the working principle of a analog multiplier using emitter coupled transistor pair.
Explain the working of analog multiplier using emitter coupled transistor pair. Discuss the application of analog multiplier IC. Explain Gilbert multiplier cell.
Under what condition the Gilbert multiplier cell work as a modulator. Explain the working of an instrumentation amplifier with a circuit. Give its characteristics and applications 16 Explain the working of any one of sinusoidal oscillators. Explain the working of Schmitt trigger.
Explain how a comparator can be used as a zero crossing detector. Draw the circuit of a first order and second order butter worth active low pass filter and derive its transfer functions. Explain the operation of basic sample and hold circuit. A typical sample and hold circuit stores electric charge in a capacitor and contains at least one fast FET switch and at least one operational amplifier.
To sample the input signal the switch connects the capacitor to the output of a buffer amplifier. The buffer amplifier charges or discharges the capacitor so that the voltage across the capacitor is practically equal, or proportional to, input voltage.
In hold mode the switch disconnects the capacitor from the buffer. The capacitor is invariably discharged by its own leakage currents and useful load currents, which makes the circuit inherently volatile, but the loss of voltage voltage droop within a specified hold time remains within an acceptable error margin. State the advantages and applications of sample and hold circuits. A sample and hold circuit is one which samples an input signal and holds on to its last sampled value until the input is sampled again.
This circuit is mainly used in digital interfacing, analog to digital systems, and pulse code modulation systems. What is the advantage and disadvantages of flash type ADC? Flash type ADC is the fastest as well as the most expensive. The disadvantage is the number of comparators needed almost doubles for each added bit For a n-bit convertor 2 n-1 comparators, 2n resistors are required.
The basic step of a 9 bit DAC is If represents 0Volts, what is the output for an input of ? Find the resolution of a 12 bit DAC converter. Advantages: a Easier to build accurately as only two precision metal films are required. Disadvantage: a In this type of DAC, when there is a change in the input, changes the current flow in the resistor which causes more power dissipation which creates non-linearity in DAC.
Define start of conversion and end of conversion. Types of ADC: 1. Flash comparator type converter 2. Counter type converter 3.
Tracking or servo converter 4. Successive approximation type converter Types of DAC: 1. Weighted resistor DAC 2. R-2R Ladder 3. Inverted R-2R Ladder The resolution of an ADC is defined as the smallest change in analog input for a one bit change at the output.
With neat sketch explain the working of a flash type ADC. What are its advantages and disadvantages.
Explain Flash type, single slope type and dual slope type ADC.Community Reviews. Thank you. The - input of op amp B is at -E;. E Force gage b Two working gages double the E. In a real bridge setup. The strain gage is bonded to a structure so that the percent change in length of the strain gage and structure are identical.
R of the temperature-compensation gage and working gage track one another to hold the bridge in balance.
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