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Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture • Principles Vernacular Architecture. HASSAN Architecture and energy conservation-Arab countries. I. Shearer. Natural Energy in ARCH Sustainable Architecture Miriam Neet, Asst. Prof. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE Tulu Toros, AIA Sean Rigdon Prof. Hassan. Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot Arid CUmates Hassan Fathy. HASSAN FATHY, an Egyptian architect, has taught on the Faculty of Fine Arts in Cairo and served as head of its architectural section. H~ is the author of Architecture for the Poor, also published by the.

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The importance of the natural ventilation techniques studies is to achieve the thermal comfort and energy efficiency particularly in hot‐dry. Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture: Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot Arid Climates. Title: Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture . Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture book. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The culmination of a lifetime's design pr.

During his career Prof. Fathy held several government positions including being the chairman for the Architectural Section of the Faculty of Fine Arts in University of Cairo in He primarily applied a working knowledge of ancient architectural and town design techniques within the contemporary economic situation of rural Egypt. At times, he trained local inhabitants to make their own materials and build their own buildings.

Climatic conditions, public health considerations, and ancient craft skills shaped his design vocabulary.

Based on requirements of hot arid regions, Prof. Fathy incorporated elaborate passive environmental control techniques that met physical, cultural and economical challenges. The progressive maturity in his projects has been categorized by intimate scholars in five major periods: Fathy insists that architects must thoroughly analyze Return to Egypt traditional building methods and forms using scientific principles Late Work and an understanding of social and cultural requirements before discarding any of them.

His lifelong achievements were recognized, in , with the Walter Shearer, Sr. Over his lifelong, industrious career Fathy had the chance not only to travel abroad extensively but also to practice his design concepts in many different countries of the world. He returned back to Egypt in Through his large network of acquaintances he seized a number of international commissions that implemented his principles abroad.

Egyptian Architecture in mids Drawing from a vast history of civilizations the vernacular architecture of Egypt constitutes a rich variety of architectural precedents.

Within a transition space Mandara off the street a simple sitting arrangement Mastaba welcomed and transitioned the visitors to the indoors.

Elaborate woodworks Mushrabiya often provided both climatic shelter and social seclusion. Based on their socio-economic and cultural settings these dwellings were usually arranged around appropriately-scaled courtyards Hosh.

Open-air sitting rooms formed the hearts of these houses where daily family activities were centered. The impact of solar radiation is minimized by use of lighter exterior colors, large overhangs shading walls and openings where warm air is discharged through convection vents.

Water vapor and air movement form the basis of evaporative or adiabatic passive cooling. Thermal gain from solar radiation, ventilation and inhabitants of dwellings need to be reduced while thermal loss should be increased through controlled ventilation systems in order to maintain a dynamic thermal equilibrium. Therefore, in maintaining a comfortable microclimate for its dwellers, buildings are designed in ways to ensure protection against heat and provide adequate cooling.

Topography and other features of the site, like slopes, trees, formation or a body of water, are crucial for manipulating the microclimate. Excessive openings to the West should be avoided. Blocks of buildings can be designed to shade one another.

Spaces are used depending on their diurnal and seasonal traits. Heavy masonry walls increase thermal mass, assisting in reduction of heat gain and loss.

North facing windows will always receive a more uniformly distributed light free from glare. Features like permanent arcading, or deciduous trees tend to work extremely well for climatic control.

Uses in these spaces should be chosen appropriately Fathy, , p. Though it works effectively from thermal standpoint it may cause unpleasant glare concerns from within the spaces. The Claustra are primarily used at higher parts of the spaces. Badgir is a similar system with openings on all sides, used in Gulf region Fathy, , p. The original structure was a domed studio, an Iwan and a Loggia for study purposes.

The expansion, later, added a larger studio and living spaces in The simplistic design exemplifies many traits of Prof. Even though the scope of the project was drastically reduced the design still demonstrates a series of key principles including: Fathy followed the framework of architectural ideas formed in this project, with ingenious variations, for the next thirty years: Hassan Fathy was commissioned to design the entire village to accommodate about families with a center serving six neighboring villages.

The ancient ruins of Bagawat nearby the site from 4 A. Fathy to study and utilize local methods and materials to maximize cooling while improving application of his basic design principles.

In laying out the overall site plan Prof. Fathy paid special attention to: Fathy carefully studied and designed the Market Complex in order to regulate the interior climate for perishable fruits, vegetables and grains.

His provisions included: William, [14] after Brunskill, regards the 'Vernacular Zone' as being a range of buildings between two thresholds: the Vernacular and the Polite. Buildings cruder than this did not survive, and so were not recorded. This was due to both their unimportance and the lack of attention paid to them, also to the insubstantial nature of their poor materials. A survey in the s by Sir Cyril Fox and Lord Raglan examined 'old' cottages in Monmouthshire expected to date them to the medieval period.

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However careful study dated them to the late eighteenth century or later: 'cottages' [i] earlier than this had simply not survived. Indeed, it can be argued that the very process of consciously designing a building makes it not vernacular.

Paul Oliver , in his book Dwellings, states: " Since at least the Arts and Crafts Movement , many modern architects have studied vernacular buildings and claimed to draw inspiration from them, including aspects of the vernacular in their designs. Having studied traditional Nubian settlements and technologies, he incorporated the traditional mud brick vaults of the Nubian settlements in his designs.

The experiment failed, due to a variety of social and economic reasons, but is the first recorded attempt by an architect to address the social and environmental requirements of building users by adopting the methods and forms of the vernacular. Accompanied by a book of the same title, including black-and-white photography of vernacular buildings around the world, the exhibition was extremely popular.

It was Rudofsky who first made use of the term vernacular in an architectural context, and brought the concept into the eye of the public and of mainstream architecture: "For want of a generic label we shall call it vernacular, anonymous, spontaneous, indigenous, rural, as the case may be.

Along with him, modern proponents of the use of the vernacular in architectural design include Charles Correa , a well known Indian architect; Muzharul Islam and Bashirul Haq , internationally known Bangladeshi architects ; Balkrishna Doshi , another Indian, who established the Vastu-Shilpa Foundation in Ahmedabad to research the vernacular architecture of the region; and Sheila Sri Prakash who has used rural Indian architecture as an inspiration for innovations in environmental and socio-economically sustainable design and planning.

The Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck was also a proponent of vernacular architecture. Oliver claims that: As yet there is no clearly defined and specialized discipline for the study of dwellings or the larger compass of vernacular architecture.

If such a discipline were to emerge it would probably be one that combines some of the elements of both architecture and anthropology with aspects of history and geography [20] [ clarification needed ] Architects have developed a renewed interest in vernacular architecture as a model for sustainable design. Despite these variations, every building is subject to the same laws of physics, and hence will demonstrate significant similarities in structural forms.

Climate[ edit ] One of the most significant influences on vernacular architecture is the macro climate of the area in which the building is constructed. Buildings in cold climates invariably have high thermal mass or significant amounts of insulation. They are usually sealed in order to prevent heat loss, and openings such as windows tend to be small or non-existent.

Buildings in warm climates, by contrast, tend to be constructed of lighter materials and to allow significant cross-ventilation through openings in the fabric of the building.

A log cabin in the region of Kysuce Slovakia - an example of vernacular architecture in relatively cold mountain climate using local materials wood.

Buildings for a continental climate must be able to cope with significant variations in temperature, and may even be altered by their occupants according to the seasons. In hot arid and semi-arid regions, vernacular structures typically include a number of distinctive elements to provide for ventilation and temperature control. Across the middle-east, these elements included such design features as courtyards gardens with water features, scree n walls, reflected light, mashrabiya the distinctive oriel window with timber lattice-work and bad girs wind-catchers.

For example, the Queenslander is an elevated weatherboard house with a sloped, tin roof that evolved in the early 19th-century as a solution to the annual flooding caused by monsoonal rain in Australia's northern states. Similarly, areas with high winds will lead to specialised buildings able to cope with them, and buildings tend to present minimal surface area to prevailing winds and are often situated low on the landscape to minimise potential storm damage.

Man should be careful not to disturb the natural electromagnetic balance by improperly selecting the material he uses for his dwelling. The microclimate adjacent to the south wall is quite different from that at the north wall. Over many centuries. All living organisms depend entirely on climate for their existence and adapt themselves to this environmental influence.

Conscious Modification of the Microclimate Yet not all species are so limited. Besides the tangible and measurable features of the environment. They grew out of countless experiments and accidents and the experience of generations of builders who continued to use what worked and rejected what did not. In any approach prescribed by tradition. Som species manipulate thl'il.

Most organisms. A principal purpose of building is to change the microclima teo Early men buil t houses to keep out the elements--rain. They were passed on in the form of traditional. Only a scientific approach to the evaluation of such new developments can save the architecture of the Tropics and Subtropics. The phenomena of the microclimate must be analyzed and new building materials.

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Although traditional architecture was evolved intuitively over long periods. A mat. All traditional solutions should be evaluated scientifically before they are discarded or substitutes proposed. Scaled and full-size models can be tested in wind tunnels to I ctcrrninc Ih. In the eagerness to become modern. Many different examples of this can be seen in entire elevations of modern buildings in tropical zones.

Now is the time to bridge the 'ap between these widely different approaches. Yet change is inevitable. Another science to which architecture is indebted is aerodynamics. Although traditional architecture is always evolving and will continue to absorb new materials and design concepts. A thorough understanding of the climatic environment and developments based thereon is essential for appropriate solutions.

Often the convenience of modern forms and materials makes their use attractive in the short term. The methods of investigating airflow around the wings and bodies of aircraft are now being used to study airflow through. Any architect who makes a solar furnance of his building and compensates for this by installing a huge cooling machine is approaching the problem inappropriately and we can measure the inappropriateness of his attempted solution by the excess number of kilocalories he uselessly introduces into the building.

Modem architects have attempted to solve this problem with modern technology. In contrast claustra-screen walls can breathe. When increased ventilation and humidity are required. Their findings are available to those interested in tropical and subtropical architecture. But a 3 x 3-m glass wall in a building exposed to soJar radiation on a warm. Failure to do so can only result in the loss of the very concepts that made the traditional techniques appropriate. When the sun-breaking or brise-soleil elements of the claustra-work are not shaded..

The modern academic world of architecture does not emphasize the value of investigating and applying concepts scientifically and. While such a solution is a definite improvement over the solid wall. Every substance that has fanned part of a living organism will retain some of its original qualities of climatic response as long as its original structure is not destroyed or significantly modified.

Thus it cools the air passing through it. The thoughtless application of modern methods in this region is seldom successful.

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Trends in International Architecture Changing a single item in a traditional building method will not ensure an improved response to the environment.. A design can succeed in uniting the particular and permanent with the universal and continuously changing. In this environment of continuously changing pressure. The continuous daily motion of the population. Various disciplines.

In this respect. Two factors facilitate this task: Such a rigid structure is intended to provide a comfortable internal environment over a wide range of these external variables. Any living organism continuously adapts itself to the flux of its mvironment. Once constructed. When considering the architectural design of a building. B fore considering the application of scientific concepts to ureilite tural design and town planning.

The architect is responsible for interpreting these facts and applying them to his designs.

This inflexibility of human creation is at once its weakness and its strength. Yet another design. The symbol for quantity of heat is q. It i defined as the quantity of heat that will flow through a unit area in a unit time. III I. The temperature of a body so cold that it is incapable of giving up any heat is called absolute zero.

The thermometer IS then assumed to acquire the same temperature. T is obtained using the equation. On the Fahrenheit scale. Celsius degree [J. Some materials. The air temperature range of interest here is that of the extremes m the usual human habitats. Scientists use two conveniently reproducible temperatures.

The symbol for specific heat is c. Thermal required to raise the temperature of one unit mass of the substance by one degree of temperature. In the British system. C deg -I. Thermal conductivity is commonly expressed by the symbol k and is measured. The symbol for rate of heat Bow is Q. Celsius degree [kcal. On the Celsius scale. Owing to the definitions of the kilocalorie and the Btu above. I leg J. Since heat flows from hotter to colder bodies or substances.

In the metric system. These heat-flow concept are based on the movement of a quantity of heat. But narrow though this range may be. Thermal conductivity is a specific property of a material and is a measure of the rate at which heat will flow through a material when a difference in temperature exists between its surfaces. F deg -lj.

Meteorologists have observed air temperatures of. It equals the rate of displacement of a quantity of heat? Conduction is the process by which heat flows through a material. C deg ": J" lor C deg: If the thickness of the material is increased.. This is important because rain penetration high humidity within a building.

In calculations. T' 7 Thermal resistivity is measured in units ofC deg m. C deg. If the thickness of the material is increased there is a corresponding proportional increase in its thermal resistance. III 2. The thermal conductivity varies with the density. Q 5 AAT' 2 where L is the thickness of tbe material.

Thermal conductance.. The thermal conductance and resistance and thermal conductivity and resistivity already considered have been related to the tempera6.

The thermal resistance is a measure of the resistance to heat flow of a deg -I]. Thus resistivity. The quantity of moisture contained in a material can have a considerable effect on the thermal conductivity of the material. F deg -Ij. The total thermal resistance of the 1. The thermal conductance is the quantity of heat that wilJ flow per unit time per unit area of a material for a one degree temperature difference between its surfaces.

Thermal resistance. F dcg. If several materials are placed together in layers. For a constant flow of quantity of beat. The average temperature of a material is another factor influencing the ra te of heat flow. At ordinary temperatures. As the temperature increases further. The intensity and wavelength distribution of this radiation depend on the nature and temperature of the material. This black body is a convenient concept used as an idealized standard. A perfectly opaque material with a totally absorbing and therefore totally nonreflecting surface.

For such an object the rate of radiation 9. Such radiation is called thermal radiation. As the temperature of the radiating object increases. It may be defined as the quantity of heat that will flow per unit time per unit area through the material when One unit of temperature difference exists between the air on each side.

Both the inside and outside air-surface interfaces provide some resistance to heat flow. At tern peratures below abou t "C about OF. Thermal transmittance. The surface temperatures of a building usually are not known. The emissivity of a surface at a given temperature is equivalent to its absorptivity for radiation from another body at the same temperature. The emissivity.. In this situation. It provides a basis both for comparing the insulating capabilities of different wall.

In this way heat is transferred from one place to another by radiation. The energy emitted by a radiating body ultimately impinges on other matter. To evaluate their emissive. For purposes of heat-loss calculations. The thermal transmittance includes these surface resistances and is the rate per unit area at which heat will flow from the air on one side of the structure to the air on the other side. On the other hand. Radiation All matter emits electromagnetic waves whicb are generated by the thermal motion of molecules composing the material.

But outdoors in the sun. Table 1 gives these characteristics for some common surfaces. Clothing and human skin radiate virtually as black surfaces. Table 1. A very thin film of nonmetallic material.

For external surfaces. For radiation at the wavelengths encountered in buildings and other living spaces.

Since the incoming radiation can only be absorbed or reflected. Table 1 shows that the emissivities of white and dark paints are about equal at normal temperatures but that white paint has a much Table 2.

Emissivities at normal temperature are important when considering heat losses from buildings through cavity-wall. Most solids.

Vernacular architecture

Table 2 gives the reflectivities of various materials and paints. Transparency Some substances. For example at normal temperatures an aluminum foil may have an emissivity of 0. The emissivity of a surface at normal temperatures "C or "F is not necessarily the same as its absorptivity for radiation received from the sun. A roof coated externally with white paint gains less heat from the sun than if it were a dark color. Radiation falling on an opaque surface is partly absorbed and the remainder is reflected.

III ' nrdiution received exceeds that emitted. II' the human body emits more radiant energy than it receives from its surroundin 'S.

Glass is transparent to wavelengths within the visible range of the spectrum. Heating and A if 'onditioning Guide. At the freezing point. If the fluid is moved by mechanical means. Even in a closed compartment. Tbe amount of water vapor that a volume of air can support at saturation can be expressed as grams or grains of vapor per volume of air. The oxygen. If fans are employed or if there are openings to the outside.

Generally speaking. Discussions of thermal comfort involve tbe heat transfer between a surface and the neighboring air.

As the altitude increases above sea lev I. Water Vapor At temperatures throughout the climatic range of the normal human habitat water can exist as solid ice. This share depends on tbe temperature. However regardless of whether the water is solid liquid the air above it contains a certain amount of water vapor. These natural convection currents cause much greater heat transfer from the surface than would result from conduction in a perfectly still atmosphere.

The temperature at which condensation begins in a mixture of air and water is termed the dew point. These currents increase heat transfer by convection.

Dust and soot particles in air are visible as motes in a sunbeam. The speed of the air current and the temperature difference affect the rate of heat transfer by convection. Perfectly still air is rare. Atmospheric-pressure measurements in meteorological work are normally expressed in units of one millibar.

Air also contains water vapor from four parts per thousand to two parts per hundred. Air containing the maximum possible amount of water vapor for its temperature is said to be saturated.. When the surface is at a temperature above that of the air. The barometer reading must be corrected for the temperature of the mercury as well as for the latitude. Heat may be transferred by convection between a surface and a Liquid or a gas.

The bar is the unit of pressure in an absolute ystem of measurement adopted for scientific use to replace the arbitrarily chosen column of mercury. Above this temperature ice is completely converted to water.

There are several ways to express the relation between humidity and temperature. One bar corresponds very nearly to mm or Using this concept. A given volume of water vapor is lighter than the same volume of air at the same temperature and pressure. Energy is needed to convert water from liquid to vapor.

This ratio. This process is called adiabatic cooling. This water vapor eventually reaches a certain height. Water vapar and tempera tu re. Such factors as heat. In winter.

This latent heat of evaporation must be supplied by the wet surface. The behavior of water vapor must be understood to comprehend the physical and physiological processes of cooling by evaporation-the phenomenon upon which thermal comfort in hot climates largely depends.

In the grasslands of Australia. When air temperature drops below the saturation point. They are key to an understanding of the formation of clouds.

Thus water condenses on cold walls just as on a drinking glass containing a liquid cooled by ice. The rate at which water evaporates from the surface depends on the relative humidity of the neighboring air.

[Read] Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture: Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot

Here a parched throat indicates the need to drink water to maintain the supply of perspiration. If this process occurs in open air where there is freedom of motion. Cooling by Evaporation Water will evaporate from a wet surface if it is exposed to air with a dew point lower than the surface temperature. When water evaporates. Near water surfaces. The processes involved in weather phenomena are not so simple. This phenomenon is used for cooling in hot dry areas such as in Iraq.

If air in a room is saturated with water vapor and its temperature decreases. A heated kettle of evaporating water can reestablish the moisture content of the air. The same feeling of dryness occurs in hot weather when evaporation of perspiration is necessary to lower body temperature.

In this way the water-vapor content of air at a given temperature can be expressed as the ratio of the portion of the total atmospheric pressure contributed by water vapor to the portion necessary to cause saturation at that air temperature. In the atmosphere. The heat gain is proportional to the area of insolated internal surfaces.

The rate of gain is dependent on the ventilation rate. Heat is lost by conduction through the walls. This mode of heat gain can be easily avoided by obstructing the passage of light. Heat gain can also be caused by ventilation which results when warm outside air flows into the building replacing the cooler interior air that escapes to the outside and by external air exchanging heat with the internal air.

Figure 4 illustrates these modes of heat gain. The most important is by conduction of the absorbed solar radiation through the walls or roof at a rate determined by the thermal conductance or thermal resistivity of the building material used. Dynamic Thermal Equilibrium At any particular time. If any openings permit the solar radiation to penetrate into the interior" then heat gain results from the direct heating of internal air. Nocturnal heat losses can be retarded by closing vents.

Ventilation is also another mode of heat loss which occurs when hot air escapes through an opening in the roof or a wall to be replaced by cooler air from outside. In hot arid climates.

For example if one were to reduce to a minimum the heat losses of an insolated building. The relationship involving the incoming and reflected solar radiation. Thermal Loss The difference between diurnal and nocturnal hea t losses in a building when not considering artificial cooling devices.

Evaporation from the surface of the building or from objects within the interior can produce a cooling effect on the building which acts as a SOUIce of heat loss.

Ventilation heat gain can be avoided by restricting the size of openings. On the other hand a very cool internal temperature could be obtained by shading the insolated surface.

The principle ofthermal inertia can be used advantageously to provide dynamic heating and cooling of a building by selecting the wall material and its thickness such that the warmth of the day penetrates the building only after nightfall when it would be welcomed and is dissipated bcfor morning. These temperatures are dependent on the outside ambient temperature and the ratio of the heat gained to the heat lost and can be adjusted by regulating the sources of beat gain and loss. Solar radiation is the principal source of heat in hot arid zones.

In this case. This is called greenhouse gain. The other sources of heat gain are the inhabitants of the building themselves and household equipment such as electric lights and appliances. Figure 4 also shows the modes of heat loss. These sources. The metabolic processes of the living human body continuously generate heat. The body has an excellent heal-regulating mechanism. The vapor pressure at the skin surface results largely from the extent to which a water film covers the ski n..

Air movement has a significant influence on the heat transfer be[ween the skin and air and wiU increase the transfer rate in whichever direction it is proceeding. When the human body has difficulty losing heat.: The consequences of heat stress can be important. Even at complete rest. When providing a comfortable microclimate. As with an engine. Only when it is exposed to prolonged severe conditions do serious difficulties arise. Physiological Objectives in 1' WeatiJer Housing: Douglas H.

For a short time he can increase this rate eightfold through violent exercise. The human body is subject to the same Jaws of physics as other 0 bjects. Like any other engine. Body heat regula tion is essen tially the maintenance of a balance between heat gains and losses.

For continued heat loss. Table 3 shows the modes of heat gain and loss between the human body and its surroundings for the metabolic activities and three mechanisms of physical heat exchange.

But this increase in blood-vessel volume may exceed the body's ability to provide acorrespending UnUHln! Thus the difference between the vapor pressure at the skin surface and that of the surrounding air controls the ease with which evaporation cools the skin.

Before examining the systems and devices that have been developed to do this in the hot arid zones.. Its metabolic processes generate its own heat as well. Heat gain and Mechanism Metabolism. Heat-regulating Mechanisms of the Human Body Table 3. Air movement increases the rate of heat loss by evaporation. To compensate. In a hot environment. Its American originators were the first to point out the limitations imposed by the fact that the scale was established from experiments on American subjects wearing clothing of American style and material.

An index used in the United States.

Although he probably would not keep this up for more than two or three hOUTS. Introduced by Houghton and Yaglou. The difference is due entirely to the relative humidity of the atmosphere. The effective temperature scale is in fact a physiological temperature scale. In addition. Measurements made using a globe thermometer include the heating effects of infrared radiation emitted.

With moderately hard work under hot dry conditions. The dry-bulb thermometer of a whirling psychrometer permits a nearly accurate evaluation of the basic air temperature. A permanent state of human comfort need not be guaranteed. In Athens. During such a relative blood shortage.

The factors that have been identified as standard for thermal comfort within buildings are: Later it was determined that the physiologically objective reactions of the subjects. In Bahrain the air is very humid and perspiration evaporates slowly. Pakistan a complete investigation using Pakistani subjects and clothing would be necessary. To establish an accurate. Measurement of Conditions of Human Comfort A convenient standard for thermal comfort is required.

Brain tissue is most sensitive to the shortage of oxygen and quickly produces the characteristic symptoms of "heat exhaustion": Eigh t Iiters is a large quantity of wa ter for the body to handle. This takes into account temperature. Then the already precarious blood supply is depleted still further and the fisk of heat exhaustion is increased.

This standard is known as the corrected effective temperature and is the most useful scale of thermal sensation now available for the Tropics. An improvement on this measurement by Vernon and Warner uses the temperature given by the globe thermometer instead of the dry-bulb air temperature and thus includes an approximation of the radiation component. Securing tbis degree of climaticimprovement should be tbe aim of tropicaJ architecture.

Analysis shows that a variety of factors can be involved in situations of discomfort. To establish it. The Kata therrnomet r is superior to the usual type of vane anemometer.

Extensive studies have established representative physiological scales tbat take into account all of these variables. Further indirect consequences of heat stress are lowered alimentary activity due to the insufficient blood supply. The physical parameters to be measured and the instruments needed are shown in table 4. It in licat s I"IlC sum f th effects of variable draughts to which a vane II1Wlt10m nc is not" sensitive but which arc physiologically important.

Such physiological scales are useful when comparing the relative comfort of different sites. An example of such a scale and instructions for its use are given in Appendix 2. Parameters 10 be measured for establishing an effective temperature scale and the eorrespondlng instruments required Parameter Air t e mpera ture Air temperature including Instrument Silvered thermometer or whirling dry-bulb psychrometer Globe thermometer They included approximately equal numbers of students from Great Britain and the United States.

For optimal comfort in air-conditioned buildings Ta ble 5 gives some examples of effective temperatures for different combinations of air temperature. Although this is a prelirni nary Studies in London have shown that wind speed at street level is generally about one-third of the unimpeded wind speed..

It should be remembered. To subjectively compare human reactions to various conditions of heat.. A summary of the student responses at The airspeed was taken to be 0. Table 7. Summary of the comfort sensation of two groups of students exposed to 2. Thus a reduction in effective temperature of 2. India All temperatures are in "C oF. Iran Bombay. Table 8 shows that it may not be" necessary to use powered airconditioning. With this understanding of the physical principles affecting human comfort.

India Abadan. Architectura1 Thermodynamics and Human Comfort 33 Table 6. Comparison of outdoor and indoor temperature and humidity condllions provided by a continuous airspeed orO.

The values for the ambient and most appreciated temperatures and humidities in four tropical etties Dry Bulb Temperature Ambient conditions: The inside effective temperature can be reduced using only evaporation in such climates.

These are caused by the configuration and nature of the tocal surface. General ty. There is a dear need to further develop tbe traditional systems based on natural resources. This process should be based on modern developments in the physical and human sciences. The Earth's major source of heat and light. This situation is unchanged for the majority of people in the industriall y developing coun tries. Architectural Design for a Comfortable Microclimate In designing and planning for the hot arid and warm humid zones.

Before inventing or proposing new mechanical solutions. This obviously includes defective designs which require energy-intensive mechanical means for their rectification. Representing these resistances by RM. These man-made elements interact with the natural microclimate to determine the factors affecting comfort in the built environment: These coefficients are given in the practical units commonly used:Oliver claims that: As yet there is no clearly defined and specialized discipline for the study of dwellings or the larger compass of vernacular architecture.

The metabolic processes of the living human body continuously generate heat. Their findings are available to those interested in tropical and subtropical architecture.

Securing this degree of climatic improvement should be the aim of tropical architecture. Related to their environmental contexts and available resources they are customarily owner- or community-built, utilizing traditional technologies. But this is nor the entire situation.

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