AMIL KAMIL BOOK
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The detailed list of prices and wages that the Ain does provide is mainly derived from data pertaining to areas in or around the imperial capital of Agra, and is therefore of limited relevance for the rest of the country. These limitations notwithstanding, the Ain remains an extraordinary document of its times.
But it is the information it contains on people, their professions and trades and on the imperial establishment and the grandees of the empire which enables historians to reconstruct the social fabric of India at that time. Answer in words 1.
Amil Kamil Mukammal | عامل کامل مکمل
What are the problems in using the Ain as a source for reconstructing agrarian history? How do historians deal with this situation? To what extent is it possible to characterise agricultural production in the sixteenth-seventeenth centuries as subsistence agriculture? Give reasons for your answer. Describe the role played by women in agricultural production. Discuss, with examples, the significance of monetary transactions during the period under consideration.
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Examine the evidence that suggests that land revenue was important for the Mughal fiscal system. To what extent do you think caste was a factor in influencing social and economic relations in agrarian society? How were the lives of forest dwellers transformed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Examine the role played by zamindars in Mughal India. Discuss the ways in which panchayats and village headmen regulated rural society.
Map work On an outline map of the world, mark the areas which had economic links with the Mughal Empire, and trace out possible routes of communication. Project choose one Visit a neighbouring village. Find out how many people live there, which crops are grown, which animals are raised, which artisanal groups reside there, whether women own land, how the local panchayat functions.
Compare this information with what you have learnt about the sixteenth- seventeenth centuries, noting similarities and differences. Explain both the changes and the continuities that you find. This was good for India as it did not have natural resources of silver.
As a result, the period between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries was also marked by a remarkable stability in the availability of metal currency, particularly the silver rupya in India.
This facilitated an unprecedented expansion of minting of coins and the circulation of money in the economy as well as the ability of the Mughal state to extract taxes and revenue in cash. The testimony of an Italian traveller, Giovanni Careri, who passed through India c. It also gives us an idea of the phenomenal amounts of cash and commodity transactions in seventeenth-century India. It is well known that as much of it comes out of America, after running through several Kingdoms of Europe, goes partly into Turky Turkey , for several sorts of Commodities; and part into Persia, by the way of Smirna for Silk.
It was completed in , the forty-second regnal year of the emperor, after having gone through five revisions. The Ain was part of a larger project of history writing commissioned by Akbar. This history, known as the Akbar Nama, comprised three books. The first two provided a historical narrative. We will look at these parts more closely in Chapter 9.
The Ain- i Akbari, the third book, was organised as a compendium of imperial regulations and a gazetteer of the empire. Collecting and compiling this information systematically was an important imperial exercise. It informed the emperor about the varied and diverse customs and practices prevailing across his extensive territories.
It is important, however, to keep in mind that this is a view of the regions from the centre, a view of society from its apex. The Ain is made up of five books daftars , of which the first three books describe the administration.
The first book, called manzil-abadi, concerns the imperial household and its maintenance. The second book, sipah-abadi, covers the military and civil administration and the establishment of servants. This book includes notices and short biographical sketches of imperial officials mansabdars , learned men, poets and artists. This section has detailed statistical information, which includes the geographic, topographic and economic profile of all subas and their administrative and fiscal divisions sarkars, parganas and mahals , total measured area, and assessed revenue jama.
After setting out details at the suba level, the Ain goes on to give a detailed picture of the sarkars below the suba. The mulk-abadi gives a fascinating, detailed and highly complex view of agrarian society in northern India.
Sharab se bachne ki dua
He seemed indescribably handsome and a flush came to her face. She slid her elbow away and was laying her head on the pillow when there was a sudden crowing from the pen. She raised her head and listened intently, thinking that perhaps it was her fancy playing tricks on her. But there was another unmistakable crowing: "Cock-a-doodle-doo. She sat up in bed and cried, "Oh, listen! Do you hear? Do get up and see. The cock. He is crowing now. At the fall of the night!
Are we to wake up for the Ramadan fast that the timing might delude us? Don't you know that a cock who crows at the fall of the night should be killed immediately? It is a creature of ill-omen. Go to sleep and forget those old wives' tales and Ghulam Khan pulled the quilt over his head and ears. Shahmal persisted for some time but she could not persuade him to utter another word. He fell into a deep, undisturbed sleep and woke up at seven in the morning as usual.
Shahmal was not so worried by the cock's crowing as by the fact that Jani the Skinny had heard it.
It would certainly stir her sharp tongue into action. Her sarcastic remarks would bore holes into Shahmal's skin: "Was this why you were saying that you wanted such an excellent cock? Cocks all over the world announce the arrival of dawn and light, but look at this ill-omened wretch; how Satan enters his nose soon after dusk!
This was very hard on her because she had hoped to answer Jani the Skinny's spiteful words by more spiteful remarks addressed, as it were, to the walls and windows but obliquely meant for the next-door neighbour.
Shahmal was crushed and stayed indoors while the hens frisked about the compound with the cock. She felt her heart turn upside down with aversion at the sight of the cock. And the cock, unaware of all this, stretched his wings and danced round the hens one by one, fanning them politely.
But the hens fled away as if saying, "What's happened to you? Is it proper? You don't seem to look about you. Wish she would throw us some grains to peck at!
The cock read their thoughts and followed them. Shahmal's glance chanced to fall on his legs. They seemed to her, from the claws to the top, the two ugliest cock legs she had ever seen. Her repugnance deepened. But she dared not shoo the hens away because she did not want Jani the Skinny to show herself at the window at her words.
She quickly took out a handful of rice and threw it to the birds from a distance. She would not have thrown any to the cock, but what could she do to the hens? The poor things could not be starved for the whole day. When Jani the Skinny's cock heard the unfamiliar crowing from the other side of the wall, he stiffened his neck and stretched his chest; his body became tense, all his nerves taut.
I wish you would come here and see for yourself. Why do you show me your fist from the other side?
She wished the cock would choke and be stricken dumb, so that Jani the Skinny would not hear him and be glued to the window. Instead of shooing him away, she picked up a lump of earth and threw it angrily at the cock, aiming at his head.
It missed him, but he was startled and started crowing loudly and Jani the Skinny leaned out of her window, "Why are you angry so early in the morning? What has the poor thing done?
Shahmal felt like a thief caught in the act of stealing. All her body exuded sweat. The careful steps she had taken to avoid this encounter were of no avail.
Jani the Skinny's words confirmed her suspicion that the woman had heard that cock crow at nightfall and her words were disguised mockery.
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She mustered up courage and said, "Why should I be angry? He doesn't let the poor hens come near the grain. That's why I scared him away. Just wait and see him feeding them himself from tomorrow," laughed Jani the Skinny. He has been brought for meat. But we decided to wait till the morning. Why will you kill him? And his voice too is impressive. She has heard it after all, why else would she praise his voice?
But she preferred to ignore the jibe in her reply. We cannot find the breed we want. But someone has promised to get it for us. She wondered at Shahmal's new coldness. Hadn't she been praising the rooster to the skies? But then perhaps Shahmal's words were meant for her—that she was keeping a scavenger cock. She was about to make a sharp retort when Shahmal walked off indoors. Jani had to swallow her anger.
Blowing into the samovar Shahmal was still deep in thought about the problem created by the cock.Sharab, charas, ganja, afeem, amal, aur tamam tarah ke gande nashe se nijat hasil karne a wazifa hai ye. Al Kafi, Page No. Ilsa Aat Kash Albarni. Sab se pehle Namazo ki pabandi zarur kare is se behad faida hasil hoga or is se bara koi wazifa yaa is se behtar koi bhi amal meri nazar se nahi guzra 2.
But the hens fled away as if saying, "What's happened to you? Numerous errors in totalling have been detected.