11TH HISTORY BOOK IN TAMIL
Tamilnadu textbook corporation 11th standard Tamil, English, Maths, Biology, Economy, Physics, Chemistry, Commerce, History, Geography. Tamilnadu 11th New Books – TN Plus One Revised Syllabus Tamil Nadu State Government and School Education Board has changed the plus. Tamil Nadu 11th Class School Textbooks Online: Studyguideindia provides Class 11th Tamil Nadu state board Textbooks online for free download. Geography (Tamil Medium) · History (Tamil Medium) · Home Science (Tamil Medium).
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It makes you aware of your strengths and weaknesses. Undoubtedly, it is as important to get your paper evaluated by a reliable guide as practising answer writing. Enrolling in a proper test series is more advisable as it channelizes your preparation in terms of time and topics, trains you in an exam environment, helps manage time better as well as guide you in the right way of rendering answers.
The more trained you are in this art, the easier and efficient it is in the Mains exam hall to ultimately fly to the Interview However, the theory of southern Russia appears to be more probable and widely accepted by historians.
From there, the Aryans moved to different parts of Asia and Europe.
Tamil Nadu History Textbook – 11th Standard - Xerox
They entered India in about B. They spoke the Indo-Aryan language, Sanskrit.
Vedic Literature The word Veda is derived from the root vid, which means to know. In other words, the term Veda signifies superior knowledge.
The Rig Veda is the earliest of the four Vedas and it consists of hymns. The hymns were sung in praise of various gods.
The Yajur Veda consists of various details of rules to be observed at the time of sacrifice. The Sama Veda is set to tune for the purpose of chanting during sacrifice.
It is called the book of chants and the origins of Indian music are traced in it. The Atharva Veda contains details of rituals. Besides the Vedas, there are other sacred works like the Brahmanas, the Upanishads, the Aranyakas and the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata.
The Brahmanas are the treatises relating to prayer and sacrificial ceremony. The Upanishads are philosophical texts dealing with topic like the soul, the absolute, the origin of the world and the mysteries of nature.
The Aranyakas are called forest books and they deal with mysticism, rites, rituals and sacrifices. The author of Ramayana was Valmiki and that of Mahabharata was Vedavyas. During the Rig Vedic period, the Aryans were mostly confined to the Indus region. The political, social and cultural life of the Rig Vedic people can be traced from the hymns of the Rig Veda. Political Organization The basic unit of political organization was kula or family.
Several families joined together on the basis of their kinship to form a village or grama. The leader of grama was known as gramani. A group of villages constituted a larger unit called visu.
It was headed by vishayapati. The highest political unit was called jana or tribe. The head of the kingdom was called as rajan or king.
The Rig Vedic polity was normally monarchical and the succession was hereditary. The king was assisted by purohita or priest and senani or commander of the army in his administration. There were two popular bodies called the Sabha and Samiti.
The former seems to have been a council of elders and the latter, a general assembly of the entire people. Social Life The Rig Vedic society was patriarchal. The basic unit of society was family or graham.
The head of the family was known as grahapathi. Monogamy was generally practiced while polygamy was prevalent among the royal and noble families. The wife took care of the household and participated in all the major ceremonies. Women were given equal opportunities as men for their spiritual and intellectual development.
Women could even attend the popular assemblies. There was no child marriage and the practice of sati was absent.
A variety of ornaments were used by both men and women. Wheat and barley, milk and its products like curd and ghee, vegetables and fruits were the chief articles of food.
The eating of cows meat was prohibited since it was a sacred animal. Chariot racing, horse racing, dicing, music and dance were the favourite pastimes. The social divisions were not rigid during the Rig Vedic period as it was in the later Vedic period. Economic Condition The Rig Vedic Aryans were pastoral people and their main occupation was cattle rearing. Their wealth was estimated in terms of their cattle. When they permanently settled in North India they began to practice agriculture.
With the knowledge and use of iron they were able to clean forests and bring more lands under cultivation. Carpentry was another important profession and the availability of wood from the forests cleared made the profession profitable. Carpenters produced chariots and ploughs. Workers in metal made a variety of articles with copper, bronze and iron.
Spinning was another important occupation and cotton and woolen fabrics were made. Goldsmiths were active in making ornaments.
The potters made various kinds of vessels for domestic use. Trade was another important economic activity and rivers served as important means of transport. Trade was conducted on barter system. In the later times, gold coins called nishka were used as media of exchange in large transactions.
History 11th and 12th Class ( Tamil Nadu Board) by Raz Kr
Religion The Rig Vedic Aryans worshiped the natural forces like earth, fire, wind, rain and thunder. They personified these natural forces into many gods and worshipped them.
Indra was the most popular among them during the early Vedic period. Next in importance to Indra was Agni who was regarded as an intermediary between the gods and people. Varuna was supposed to be the upholder of the natural order. There were also female gods like Aditi and Ushas.
There were no temples and no idol worship during the early Vedic period. Prayers were offered to the gods in the expectation of rewards. Ghee, milk and grain were given as offerings.
Elaborate rituals were followed during the worship. Later Vedic Period B.
The Aryans further moved towards east in the Later Vedic Period. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to the expansion of Aryans to the eastern Gangetic plains.We add countless jobs which include categories, job profiles, job summary, Education Qualification, Age and Submission of the post details. Better read old physics, chemistry and biology 11th books for group 1 exams. You are here: Carpentry was another important profession and the availability of wood from the forests cleared made the profession profitable.
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