LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY PDF
Large Animal Surgery. Categories: Large Animal · Surgery, Orthopedics & Trauma hospital facilities are included. PDF MB Password: wildlifeprotection.info Help. Rev. ed. of: Techniques in large animal surgery / Dean A. Hendrickson. ISBN (hardback: alk. paper) – ISBN (PDF) – surgery. III. Turner, A. Simon (Anthony Simon) Techniques in large animal. Professor, Large Animal Surgery, Department of Large. Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary. Medicine, University of Saskatchewan.
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pdf. Techniques in large animal surgery 4 edition. Pages (hardback: alk. paper) – ISBN (PDF) – ISBN – ISBN. Atlas of large animal surgery. Book · January with Reads. Publisher: First. Publisher: Publisher: Azad university and. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Feb 1, , James L. Carmalt and others published Techniques in Large Animal Surgery, 3rd edition.
In both cases the opened guttural pouch is drained and ible.
A cm incision is made dorsal and parallel to the vein through the flushed until exudation has ceased. The connective tissue at the ventral border of the parotid is bluntly dissected, until the guttural pouch submucosa has been reached. A fold is carefully elevated as far as possible, and opened with scalpel or scissors . If possible the wall of the guttural pouch is sutured to the edges of the skin wound.
Abnormal contents are removed by flushing with a mild disinfectant. A rubber tube is inserted into the drain- age opening, and fixed to the skin with sutures . Initially the sinusitis is often confined to the caudal part of the sinus, but in long-standing cases the entire sinus may be in- volved.
In the latter case drainage of the sinus is obtained by trephining 2 cm from the midline on a line passing through the centre of the orbits . If the original opening to the sinus at the site of the dehorning wound is narrowed or closed by granulation tissue, it is enlarged or re-opened under cornual nerve block to facilitate adequate flushing of the sinus.
Trephination is carried out on the standing animal under local analgesia. An ap- proximately 5 cm long vertical incision is made through skin, subcutis and periosteum.
Atlas of Large Animal Surgery
The peri- osteum is dissected from the bone with a perios- teal elevator  and drawn aside, together with the skin, with wound retractors. The point of the trephine is inserted into the bone.
Trephi- nation is performed by rotating the trephine . After a circular groove has been cut into the bone, the point of the trephine is retracted, and trephination is continued through the full thickness of the bone. The disc is removed with a bone screw inserted into the hole made pre- viously by the point of the trephine.
Sometimes the disc must be levered out because it remains fixed to a bony sinus septum. To remove exudate and necrotic tissue the sinus is flushed thoroughly with a disinfectant solution . To prevent premature closure of the openings they are packed with gauze bandage plugs. Post- operative flushing is repeated daily, until the sinus has healed, as evidenced by absence of purulent discharge.
The periosteum is then incised with a scalpel and separated from the bone with a periosteal elevator. The Trephination of the maxillary sinuses is indicated in cases of empyema, wound edges of the skin and periosteum are drawn aside with wound re- cysts or neoplasms, and for repulsion of upper molar teeth. Plate tractors . Trephination is performed as described in The disc is represents a radiograph showing chronic alveolitis of the first upper molar.
In empyema caused by alveolitis, the The rostral maxillary sinus is trephined about cm dorsal to the rostral sinus is flushed and the affected tooth is carefully located. A punch is then end of the facial crest; the caudal maxillary sinus is trephined cm rost- introduced into the sinus and placed upon the roots of the tooth to be ral to the medial canthus and cm dorsal to the facial crest .
Care repelled. To prevent damage to adjacent teeth and the maxillary bone, the must be taken to avoid damage to the nasolacrimal duct.
The operation may be carried out either on the standing animal trephination hole with rongeurs. The tooth is repelled from its alveolus under local infiltration analgesia, or on the recumbent animal  under with firm, but careful, blows . The course of repulsion is constantly general anaesthesia. In case of tooth repulsion general anaesthesia is checked by the surgeon's hand in the oral cavity.
After removal the tooth is required. Any tooth or bony fragments must At the selected site an approximately 4 cm long incision is made parallel to be removed. Intra-operative radiography is recommended to ensure that the facial crest through the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Depending on no fragments remain.
The alveolus and trephination hole are then packed with povidone iodine soaked gauze bandage plugs . Postoperatively the sinus and alveolus are repeatedly flushed after removal of both plugs. The plug placed in the alveolus after flushing must be some- what smaller than the previous one, in order to enable granulation tissue to gradually fill the alveolus; the plugs in the trephination hole are of constant size.
Only when the alveolus is closed off by granulation tissue and ex- udation in the sinus has ceased is the trephination hole allowed to close. To prevent the wire from slipping off the Fractures of the maxilla and mandible have been observed in all large an- teeth, grooves are made with a hack saw or file in the neck of both third imals but occur most frequently in horses and cattle.
Self-inflicted trauma incisors  and in the canine teeth. By tightening the stainless steel and external violence are the most common causes. In horses, fractures cerclage wire around the unfractured teeth the fragment is stabilised involving the incisor teeth and a variable sized fragment of premaxilla or laterally, and additional stabilisation and compression is achieved by apply- mandible occur frequently .
The deciduous teeth in young animals are ing and tightening the wire around the canine tooth or the screw . Because these teeth have short roots the injury is often Postoperatively, there is usually no problem associated with prehension or minor and of little consequence. Clinically, dislocation of the incisor teeth mastication.
Healing of the fracture takes place in weeks depending on is obvious. The wound may be packed with feed if the animal has attempt- the age of the patient. After healing the wire must be removed. Teeth may be loose, broken or missing. The operation should be performed in lateral recumbency under general anaesthesia. Debris and granulation tissue, if any, are removed and the wound is carefully cleansed and disinfected. The fragment should be fixed to the premaxilla or mandible by wiring the incisor teeth, but com- pression in a caudal direction may also be necessary.
The two Rush nails, previously cut to the required length and contoured Fracture in the interdental space is the most common fracture involving correctly, are inserted with a hammer and impactor .
It is important the horizontal rami of the mandible. The fractures may be unilateral or bi- that the nails do not damage the roots of the premolars . Unilateral interdental Postoperative feeding must be modified, but in sucklings nursing can be space fractures without severe dislocation heal spontaneously. Bilateral permitted. In the event of compound fracture bone sequestration often oc- fractures of the interdental spaces cause dislocation of the rostral part curs, in which case purulent material usually escapes from draining tracts , and require osteosynthesis.
Sequestra must be removed, after which Surgery. The operation should be performed with the patient in lateral re- discharge ceases. Healing of the fracture takes place in weeks depend- cumbency under general anaesthesia. In this case intramedullary nailing ing on the age of the patient; implants may then be removed.
Implantation of the nails precisely in the mandibular rami without damag- ing the roots of the teeth demands radiographic monitoring during surgery to ensure accurate insertion of the drill.
Num- erous mechanical devices have been invented to prevent sucking. Because the herd may be- come restless due to the pain these devices inflict, and feeding and drinking may be impaired, sur- gical treatment is preferable. The patient is sedated and restrained in lateral recumbency.
Traction on a modified sponge forceps applied to the tip of the tongue facilitates exposure of the ventral lingual surface. A tourniquet is placed around the base of the tongue as close to the frenulum as possible, and the operative area is submucosally infiltrated with local analgesic. The elliptical incision begins a few centimetres caudal to the tip of the tongue, ends just cranial to the attachment of the frenulum, and is about 5 cm wide at its widest part in adult cattle [,]: it is important that sufficient mucosa is excised so that a convex shape of the dorsum of the tongue is produced after suturing is complete.
The wound edges are apposed with single interrupted sutures of syn- thetic absorbable material. The sutures must in- clude not only the mucosa but also some muscle to prevent tearing of the tissue by the sutures [,].
For hours postoperatively the patients re- ceive only water. Nearly all animals will eat im- mediately thereafter, and show no major prob- lems in prehension and mastication of food. The deep bites of the mattress Eyelid lacerations in horses are often full-thickness, i. Usually the upper eyelid is torn the superficial bites only the skin.
Either absorbable or non-absorbable . In cases of recent laceration re-apposition and careful suturing must suture material may be used. The sutures are left in place for at least one week . During this period Surgery.
Treatment may be carried out either on the standing animal under ophthalmic antibiotic ointment may be administered twice daily. The wound and conjunc- tival sac are flushed with physiologic saline. Sharp superficial excision of the wound edges is then carried out with a scalpel, to produce fresh, bleed- ing surfaces. Suturing is begun at the site of the palpebral margin, where a simple interrupted suture is placed .
The remainder of the wound is then closed. Usually the conjunctiva is not sutured: in any case perforation should be avoided to prevent damage to the cornea. The orbicularis oculi muscle and skin are sutured together, either with interrupted vertical mat- Chapter I THE H E A D I Eye i-io, i-n i-io Excision of the nictitating membrane Surgery of the third eyelid is indicated in case of tumorous growth, which in horses and cattle usually involves squamous cell carcinoma.
Small neo- plasms can be removed leaving an intact nictitating membrane, but larger tumours require total excision . The operation is carried out on the standing or recumbent animal under local analgesia.
The base of the third eyelid is infiltrated with a local analgesic after instillation of topical analgesic in the conjunctival sac. The nictitating membrane is held with a forceps and drawn from the con- junctival sac as far as possible. Complete excision deep to the cartilage is performed using a pair of curved blunt-pointed scissors . Haemor- rhage is controlled by pressure with a gauze swab soaked in o.
Ophthalmic antibiotic ointment is administered in the conjunctival sac for several days . The eyeball is then Enucleation of the eyeball usually includes removal of the globe together withdrawn from the orbit .
The lacrimal gland is then removed. The with the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva, the nictitating membrane and forceps is removed; haemorrhage may be controlled either by vessel lig- the lacrimal gland. The operation may be indicated in cases of eyelid or ation or packing the orbit with sterile gauze bandages.
The eyelids are eyeball neoplasia, gross injuries of the eyeball e. Surgery is carried out with the animal recumbent under either The gauze packing is removed after 2 to 3 days. Plate shows the in- general anaesthesia, or under ophthalmic nerve regional analgesia and duced artificial ankyloblepharon several months postoperatively. If possible, the upper and lower eyelids are sutured together with a continuous suture. An elliptical incision, 0. By blunt dissection in the direction of the orbita!
The retrobulbar tissues and extra-ocular muscles are dissected bluntly and transected as close to the globe as possible. In some cases the distal part of the duct is also absent. Surgery is performed under general anaesthesia. A catheter is in- troduced into the lacrimal papilla of either the upper or lower eyelid . The catheter is then advanced carefully down the tear duct, until the tip is palpable beneath the nasal mucous membrane .
The nasal mucosa and the mucosa of the blind end of the duct are incised over the tip of the ca- theter , after which the catheter is pushed through the opening cre- ated . If accessible, the mucous membrane of the duct is sutured to the nasal mucous membrane with simple interrupted sutures of fine ab- sorbable material.
The catheter is then sutured to the skin in the nasal and eyelid regions, and left in place for at least two weeks. If suturing of the mucosal layers is impossible the catheter must be left in place for a longer period weeks , after which time the wound edges have healed and the opening remains patent. The whole operation may be accompanied by considerable haemorrhage, In crib-biting the horse grips a fixed object e.
The skin and subcutis are dissected upper incisor teeth, arches the neck and attempts to swallow air; horses and reflected laterally . The omohyoideus muscle is carefully separ- which succeed in swallowing air are called windsuckers. Some horses are ated from the jugular vein.
The omohyoideus and sternohyoideus are 'free' windsuckers, these display the vice without cribbing. Initially non- transected near their insertions  and reflected back to the caudal edge surgical methods cribbing strap, aversion therapy may be used, but are of the wound, whereafter the entire muscle section is removed .
This often unsuccessful, and the owner requests surgical treatment. This con- exposes the cranial part of sternothyroideus  which is easily dissected sists of partial resection of the paired ventral neck muscles: sternohyoideus, from the trachea and excised . Next the sternocephalicus is freed by omohyoideus, sternothyroideus and sternocephalicus.
Instead of myect- blunt dissection after incising its sheath longitudinally. The muscle is tran- omy of the latter, neurectomy of the ventral branch of the accessory nerve sected at the caudal edge of the incision , reflected cranially and se- may be performed. The horse is positioned in dorsal recumbency under general Instead of sternocephalicus myectomy, denervation of the muscle may be anaesthesia.
Excessive extension of the neck should be avoided because of performed. The purpose of neurectomy of the ventral branch of the ac- possible stretching of the recurrent nerve, the head should thus be resting cessory nerve is to diminish the post-operative deformity of the region.
The neurectomy site is proximal to the entry of the nerve into the muscle; at least 3 cm are removed . The procedure may be carried out before or after myectomy of the other muscles. The skin is closed with in- terrupted mattress sutures. At both ends of the wound a drain is placed. Proper functioning of the drains must be checked twice daily, and they must not be removed before 3 days. Postoperatively the horse is confined for about three weeks, and care is taken that the stall contains no objects that may be grasped with the incisors or on which the wound may be rubbed.
The double chromic catgut is threaded through the eye of the needle and pulled through the muscular process. The medial Inspiratory dyspnoea due to laryngeal hemiplegia roaring is a common part of the ligature is brought under the crycoarytenoid muscle using the clinical sign in horses requiring surgical treatment to enlarge the reduced Deschamp's needle.
The needle is then passed, from medial to lateral, laryngeal lumen [o6gA]. Many procedures to alleviate laryngeal hemiplegia through the caudal border of the cricoid cartilage, about 2 cm lateral to the have been utilized. Of the various techniques the combination of cricoary- median ridge.
Turner and McIlwraith's Techniques in Large Animal Surgery, 4th Edition
The needle passes through the cartilage, but not through tenoidopexy with unilateral or bilateral ventriculectomy has given the best mucous membrane into the laryngeal lumen. The needle emerges approxi- results. Instead of lycra, a double ligature of heavy-sized chromic catgut is mately i cm cranial to the caudal border of the cricoid .
The medial preferred for the cricoarytenoidopexy. The horse is positioned in right lateral recumbency in general cartilage . The two ends of the ligature are tied  with sufficient anaesthesia with the head and neck extended.
Sub- A vacuum drain is placed in the wound cavity. The subcutaneous and deep cutaneous fascia is incised with a scalpel. The dorsolateral aspect of the fascial tissues are closed with a simple continuous suture and the skin with larynx is approached by blunt dissection.
The muscular process of the interrupted sutures, using synthetic absorbable material. The laryngeal cavity is opened see ; the crycoid cartilage is not incised. The mucous membrane of the left laryngeal saccule is removed. The rim of the laryngeal saccule is incised on its caudal border  and the index finger is brought submucosally to free and then evert the mucous mem- brane.
The everted mucous membrane is resected with scissors as close to the base as possible without damaging the adjacent cartilage . To prevent foreign body aspiration during recovery and recuperation the skin is closed with a few non-absorbable interrupted sutures. If postoperative dyspnoea occurs a tracheotomy tube is inserted through the laryngotomy wound, or tracheotomy see is performed.
Antibiotics are administered. The vacuum drain is removed after two to three days. The laryngotomy wound is cleansed daily and heals satisfac- torily by second intention.
The horse is confined to a box for 4 weeks. Is this something I can do, or do they need to stay in the hospital? Will my horse need to be on stall rest after surgery? If so for how long? Can I expect my horse to return to its previous level of performance? How long before my horse can return to regular work and turnout? What sort of rehabilitation program will my horse need before returning to regular work?
Would it be better if a board-certified veterinary surgeon performed this procedure? Can my animal be used for meat, milk, fiber or breeding purposes after this procedure is performed?
What are the possible risks and complications? Are alternative procedures available? How often have you performed this surgery? Will my animal require anesthesia? Is your staff trained specifically to do anesthesia on farm animals?
How often do you anesthetize farm animals at your clinic?When all sutures have been inserted, they are tightened  and tied. The distinction between the affected urachus and the blad- an extended position. The needle is introduced into the hernial ring cm from its edge the wound edges of large hernias may be reduced by restricting dietary in- and runs deeply through the ring without perforating peritoneum.
The patient is positioned in dorsal recumbency under general rounding tissue . Amputation in adult goats should be considered carefully, because very large openings to the frontal sinuses result, neces- sitating prolonged aftercare.
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