AMERICAN SNIPER PDF ITALIANO
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To find the correct zero, the sniper multiplies the actual distance to the range by this fraction and aims as if the target were that distance away. For example, a sniper who observes a target meters away at a degree angle downhill would multiply the range by the cosine of 45 degrees, which is 0.
The resulting distance will be meters. This number is equal to the horizontal distance to the target. All other values, such as windage, time-to-target, impact velocity, and energy will be calculated based on the actual range of meters. Recently, a small device known as a cosine indicator has been developed. Windage plays a significant role, with the effect increasing with wind speed or the distance of the shot.
The slant of visible convections near the ground can be used to estimate crosswinds, and correct the point of aim. All adjustments for range, wind, and elevation can be performed by aiming off the target, called "holding over" or Kentucky windage.
The shooter must remember to return the scope to zeroed position. Adjusting the scope allows for more accurate shots, because the cross-hairs can be aligned with the target more accurately, but the sniper must know exactly what differences the changes will have on the point-of-impact at each target range. For moving targets, the point-of-aim is ahead of the target in the direction of movement. Known as "leading" the target, the amount of "lead" depends on the speed and angle of the target's movement as well as the distance to the target.
For this technique, holding over is the preferred method. The term "hide site" refers to a covered and concealed position from which a sniper and his team can conduct surveillance or fire at targets.
A good hide conceals and camouflages the sniper effectively, provides cover from enemy fire and allows a wide view of the surrounding area. The main purpose of ghillie suits and hide sites is to break up the outline of a person with a rifle.
Many snipers use ghillie suits to hide and stay hidden.
Ghillie suits vary according to the terrain into which the sniper wishes to blend. For example, in dry grassland the sniper will typically wear a ghillie suit covered in dead grass. Shot placement, which is where on the body the sniper is aiming, varies with the type of sniper. These shots depend on tissue damage, organ trauma, and blood loss to kill the soldier.
Body shots are used because the chest is a larger target. Police snipers, who generally shoot at much shorter distances, may attempt a more precise shot at particular parts of body or particular devices: In a high-risk or hostage-taking situation where a suspect is imminently threatening to kill a hostage, police snipers may take head shots to ensure an instant kill.
The snipers aim for the medulla oblongata to sever the spine from the brain. While this is believed to prevent the target from reflexively firing their weapon, there is evidence that any brain-hit is sufficient.
Snipers are trained for the detection, identification, and location of a targeted soldier in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of lethal and non-lethal means. Since most kills in modern warfare are by crew-served weapons , reconnaissance is one of the most effective uses of snipers. They use their aerobic conditioning, infiltration skills and excellent long-distance observation equipment optical scopes and tactics to approach and observe the enemy.
In this role, their rules of engagement typically let them shoot at high-value targets of opportunity, such as enemy officers. The targets may be personnel or high-value materiel military equipment and weapons but most often they target the most important enemy personnel such as officers or specialists e. Other personnel they might target include those who pose an immediate threat to the sniper, like dog handlers, who are often employed in a search for snipers.
If possible, snipers shoot in descending order by rank , or if rank is unavailable, they shoot to disrupt communications. A sniper equipped with the correct rifle can target radar dishes, water containers, the engines of vehicles, and any number of other targets. Other rifles, such as the. Other calibers, such as the. Often in situations with multiple targets, snipers use relocation. After firing a few shots from a certain position, snipers move unseen to another location before the enemy can determine where they are and mount a counter-attack.
Snipers will frequently use this tactic to their advantage, creating an atmosphere of chaos and confusion. In other, rarer situations, relocation is used to eliminate the factor of wind.
As sniper rifles are often extremely powerful and consequently loud, it is common for snipers to use a technique known as sound masking. When employed by a highly skilled marksman, this tactic can be used as a substitute for a noise suppressor. Very loud sounds in the environment, such as artillery shells air bursting or claps of thunder, can often mask the sound of the shot. This technique is frequently used in clandestine operations , infiltration tactics , and guerrilla warfare.
Due to the surprise nature of sniper fire, high lethality of aimed shots and frustration at the inability to locate and counterattack snipers, sniper tactics have a significant negative effect on morale.
Extensive use of sniper tactics can be used to induce constant stress and fear in opposing forces, making them afraid to move about or leave cover. In many ways, the psychological impact imposed by snipers is quite similar to those of landmines , booby-traps , and IEDs constant threat, high "per event" lethality, inability to strike back.
Historically, captured snipers are often summarily executed. As a result, if a sniper is in imminent danger of capture, he may discard any items sniper rifle, laser rangefinder, etc. The risk of captured snipers being summarily executed is explicitly referred to in Chapter 6 of US Army doctrine document FM Historically, units that suffered heavy and continual casualties from urban sniper fire and were frustrated by their inability to strike back effectively often have become enraged.
Such units may overreact and violate the laws of land warfare concerning the treatment of captured snipers. This tendency is magnified if the unit has been under the intense stress of urban combat for an extended time. It is vital that commanders and leaders at all levels understand the law of land warfare and understand the psychological pressures of urban warfare.
It requires strong leadership and great moral strength to prevent soldiers from releasing their anger and frustration on captured snipers or civilians suspected of sniping at them. The negative reputation and perception of snipers can be traced back to the American Revolution , when American "Marksmen" intentionally targeted British officers, an act considered uncivilized by the British Army at the time this reputation was cemented during the Battle of Saratoga , when Benedict Arnold allegedly ordered his marksmen to target British General Simon Fraser , an act that won the battle and French support.
To demoralize enemy troops, snipers can follow predictable patterns. During the 26th of July Movement in the Cuban Revolution , the revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro always killed the foremost man in a group of President Batista 's soldiers. This effectively decreased the army's willingness to search for rebel bases in the mountains. An alternative approach to this psychological process is to kill the second man in the row, leading to the psychological effect of nobody wanting to follow the "leader".
The occurrence of sniper warfare has led to the evolution of many counter-sniper tactics in modern military strategies. These aim to reduce the damage caused by a sniper to an army, which can often be harmful to both combat capabilities and morale.
The risk of damage to a chain of command can be reduced by removing or concealing features that would otherwise indicate an officer's rank. Modern armies tend to avoid saluting officers in the field, and eliminate rank insignia on battle dress uniforms BDU. Officers can seek maximum cover before revealing themselves as good candidates for elimination through actions such as reading maps or using radios.
Friendly snipers can be used to hunt the enemy sniper. Besides direct observation, defending forces can use other techniques. These include calculating the trajectory of a bullet by triangulation. Traditionally, triangulation of a sniper's position was done manually, though radar-based technology has recently become available.
Once located, the defenders can attempt to approach the sniper from cover and overwhelm them.
The United States military is funding a project known as RedOwl Robot Enhanced Detection Outpost With Lasers , which uses laser and acoustic sensors to determine the exact direction from which a sniper round has been fired. The more rounds fired by a sniper, the greater the chance the target has of locating him. The doll was then presented as if it were a real man sloppily covering himself. Usually, Soviet snipers were unable to resist the temptation of an apparently easy kill.
Once the angle where the bullet came from was determined, a large caliber gun, such as a Lahti L "Norsupyssy" "Elephant rifle" anti-tank rifle was fired at the sniper to kill him.
Other tactics include directing artillery or mortar fire onto suspected sniper positions, the use of smoke screens , placing tripwire -operated munitions, mines , or other booby-traps near suspected sniper positions. Even dummy trip-wires can be placed to hamper sniper movement.
If anti-personnel mines are unavailable, it is possible to improvise booby-traps by connecting trip-wires to hand grenades , smoke grenades or flares. Though these may not kill a sniper, they will reveal their location. Booby-trap devices can be placed near likely sniper hides, or along the probable routes to and from positions.
Knowledge of sniper field-craft will assist in this task. The use of canine units had been very successful, especially during the Vietnam War. The use of sniping in the sense of shooting at relatively long range from a concealed position to murder came to public attention in a number of sensational U. However, these incidents usually do not involve the range or skill of military snipers; in all three cases the perpetrators had U.
News reports will often inaccurately use the term sniper to describe anyone shooting with a rifle at another person. Sniping has been used in asymmetric warfare situations, for example in the Northern Ireland Troubles , where in , the bloodiest year of the conflict, the majority of the soldiers killed were shot by concealed IRA riflemen.
The sniper is particularly suited to combat environments where one side is at a disadvantage. A careful sniping strategy can use a few individuals and resources to thwart the movement or other progress of a much better equipped or larger force.
Sniping enables a few persons to instil terror in a much larger regular force — regardless of the size of the force the snipers are attached to. It is widely accepted that sniping, while effective in specific instances, is much more effective as a broadly deployed psychological attack or as a force-multiplier. Snipers are less likely to be treated mercifully than non-snipers if captured by the enemy.
In , the U. However, shortly after the initial invasion, violence against coalition forces and among various sectarian groups led to asymmetric warfare with the Iraqi insurgency and civil war between many Sunni and Shia Iraqis.
Through to November the Army had attributed 28 of 2, U. Training materials obtained by U. Some sniper teams in Afghanistan have killed large numbers of Taliban in quite short periods of time.
For example, while in Helmand Province, two British snipers part of the Welsh Guards Battle group shot dead a total of 75 Taliban in only 40 days during the summer of In one session of duty, lasting just two hours, they shot and killed eight Taliban.
On another occasion, the same team scored a "Quigley" i. Taliban snipers have themselves caused problems for coalition forces.
For example, over a four-month period in early , two Taliban snipers shot dead two British soldiers and wounded six others at an outpost in Qadrat, Helmand province. Sniper activity was reported during the Arab Spring civil unrest in Libya in , both from anti-governmental  and pro-governmental  supporters, and in Syria at least from pro-government   forces.
Even before firearms were available, soldiers such as archers were specially trained as elite marksmen. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sniper disambiguation. Main articles: This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Main article: Longest recorded sniper kills. Play media. Target acquisition. Counter-sniper tactics. Irregular warfare and Asymmetric warfare. Iraq War. Further information: List of snipers.
List of books, articles and documentaries about snipers. What is the Longest Sniper Rifle Shot? Shooting Range Industries. Retrieved Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 April Zeitgeschichte - Spezialeinheiten im Zweiten Weltkrieg: EMS GmbH.
Event occurs at 57mins. CBS News. Retrieved 4 May Archived from the original on 22 July Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The Columbus Ohio Police. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 7 May The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 June The Sunday Times. Sky News. Sky UK.
Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 7 June Conditions were perfect, no wind, mild weather, clear visibility. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 7 June Retrieved 1 June To Be a Military Sniper. Zenith Imprint. Retrieved 12 July American Rifle: A Biography. New York: Random House Publishing Group. Through the Crosshairs: A History of Snipers.
Da Capo Press, Incorporated. George Washington's War: The Saga of the American Revolution. Out of Nowhere: A history of the military sniper, from the Sharpshooter to Afghanistan. Osprey Publishing. Retrieved 18 November Institution of Civil Engineers Great Britain , , p. Louisiana State University Press. Civil War Battlefields: A Touring Guide. Taylor Trade Publications. Cummings III June Spotsylvania County. Arcadia Publishing. Spotsylvania Campaign.
North Carolina: UNC Press Books. Sniping in France. Chapter XI. Hesketh Prichard. Chapter 5. Chapter 2. Hesketh-Prichard p. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 30 March Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 6 February CS1 maint: Archived from the original PDF on 24 August Army gets sniper schools" Rossiiskaya gazeta 19 October I hit his weapon at 80 meters to save him ".
Retrieved 14 May Amber Books. Trigger Men: Martin's Press. Retrieved 10 May The Register. The Boston Globe. Valkoinen kuolema: Vietnam, - ". Stalkers and Shooters: Penguin Group US. In , this figure rose to sixty-four, most of them killed by snipers. Operation Banner: Sasser 1 July Crosshairs on the Kill Zone: Pocket Books. An Illustrated History. MBI Publishing Company. USA Today. Retrieved 21 March Reuters news service.
Archived from the original on 13 March Medics, Engineers and Chaplains". Pensito Review. Extraordinary images show how crack shot killed insurgents". Daily Mail. Soldiers volunteer as targets to flush out sniper who is shooting colleagues". Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 25 February ABC News Network. France Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 30 January Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 1 April — via Google.
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Jack Hinson's One-man War: A civil war sniper. Pelican Publishing. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising". New York Times. Lamb; illustrated by Lord Baden-Powell He-who-sees-in-the-dark; the boys' story of Frederick Burnham, the American scout. Brewer, Warren and Putnam. Multiple names: New York Times London Chronicle. Gallipoli Sniper: The life of Billy Sing. Pan Macmillan Australia.
A Fatherly Eye: University of Toronto Press. Retrieved 13 October Almost 14, Free Chess Ebooks by Archiveorg A great collection of free chess ebooks, either digitized or scanned by individuals Wide variety of titles to choose from. SKS's 30 years of development is closely linked with China's reform and opening-up.
Since its establishment, SKS has always been making dedications to society and setting up the great ambition of benefiting mankind to practice the commitment "let the light of civilization always shine". Power by SKS All rights reserved.
Granite Crushing Plant in Sri Lanka. Laos iron ore processing plant. Limestone and Granite Crush Plant in Iran. Limestone Crushing Line in Algeria. Limestone Grinding in Belgium. VSI5X Crusher.All adjustments for range, wind, and elevation can be performed by aiming off the target, called "holding over" or Kentucky windage. Character and Revolution: Retrieved August 5, Rolling Stone.
For example, over a four-month period in early , two Taliban snipers shot dead two British soldiers and wounded six others at an outpost in Qadrat, Helmand province. Not a user? There was no need for long range accuracy because most combat in the jungle took place within a few hundred meters.
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