REMOTE SENSING MODELS AND METHODS FOR IMAGE PROCESSING PDF
Information Extraction from Remote-Sensing Images Methods for Image Processing, the Third Edition provides a needed The histogram is often associated with the Probability Density Function (PDF) of statistics. Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing - 3rd Edition - ISBN: , Models and Methods for Image Processing. 0 star rating Write a. Robert A. Schowengerdt, Remote sensing: models and methods for image pro- image processing and machine learning but will exploit the physics underlying.
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About this book This book maximizes reader insights into the field of mathematical models and methods for the processing of two-dimensional remote sensing images.
It presents a broad analysis of the field, encompassing passive and active sensors, hyperspectral images, synthetic aperture radar SAR , interferometric SAR, and polarimetric SAR data.
At the same time, it addresses highly topical subjects involving remote sensing data types e. This organization ensures that both tutorial information and advanced subjects are covered. With each chapter being written by research scientists from at least two different institutions, it offers multiple professional experiences and perspectives on each subject.
The book also provides expert analysis and commentary from leading remote sensing and image processing researchers, many of whom serve on the editorial boards of prestigious international journals in these fields, and are actively involved in international scientific societies. Providing the reader with a comprehensive picture of the overall advances and the current cutting-edge developments in the field of mathematical models for remote sensing image analysis, this book is ideal as both a reference resource and a textbook for graduate and doctoral students as well as for remote sensing scientists and practitioners.
About the authors Gabriele Moser received the laurea M. Since , he has been an associate professor of telecommunications at the University of Genoa.
In , he spent a period as visiting professor at the National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse, France. Hyperspectral imaging produces an image where each pixel has full spectral information with imaging narrow spectral bands over a contiguous spectral range.
Hyperspectral imagers are used in various applications including mineralogy, biology, defence, and environmental measurements. Within the scope of the combat against desertification , remote sensing allows researchers to follow up and monitor risk areas in the long term, to determine desertification factors, to support decision-makers in defining relevant measures of environmental management, and to assess their impacts.
Overhead gravity data collection was first used in aerial submarine detection. This data revealed minute perturbations in the Earth's gravitational field that may be used to determine changes in the mass distribution of the Earth, which in turn may be used for geophysical studies, as in GRACE.
Seismograms taken at different locations can locate and measure earthquakes after they occur by comparing the relative intensity and precise timings. Ultrasound : Ultrasound sensors, that emit high frequency pulses and listening for echoes, used for detecting water waves and water level, as in tide gauges or for towing tanks.
To coordinate a series of large-scale observations, most sensing systems depend on the following: platform location and the orientation of the sensor.
High-end instruments now often use positional information from satellite navigation systems. The rotation and orientation is often provided within a degree or two with electronic compasses.
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Compasses can measure not just azimuth i. More exact orientations require gyroscopic-aided orientation , periodically realigned by different methods including navigation from stars or known benchmarks.
The quality of remote sensing data consists of its spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions. Spatial resolution The size of a pixel that is recorded in a raster image — typically pixels may correspond to square areas ranging in side length from 1 to 1, metres 3.
Spectral resolution The wavelength of the different frequency bands recorded — usually, this is related to the number of frequency bands recorded by the platform. Current Landsat collection is that of seven bands, including several in the infrared spectrum, ranging from a spectral resolution of 0. The Hyperion sensor on Earth Observing-1 resolves bands from 0. Radiometric resolution The number of different intensities of radiation the sensor is able to distinguish.
Typically, this ranges from 8 to 14 bits, corresponding to levels of the gray scale and up to 16, intensities or "shades" of colour, in each band. It also depends on the instrument noise. Temporal resolution The frequency of flyovers by the satellite or plane, and is only relevant in time-series studies or those requiring an averaged or mosaic image as in deforesting monitoring.
Cloud cover over a given area or object makes it necessary to repeat the collection of said location.
Data processing[ edit ] In order to create sensor-based maps, most remote sensing systems expect to extrapolate sensor data in relation to a reference point including distances between known points on the ground.
This depends on the type of sensor used. For example, in conventional photographs, distances are accurate in the center of the image, with the distortion of measurements increasing the farther you get from the center. Another factor is that of the platen against which the film is pressed can cause severe errors when photographs are used to measure ground distances.
Mathematical Models for Remote Sensing Image Processing
The step in which this problem is resolved is called georeferencing , and involves computer-aided matching of points in the image typically 30 or more points per image which is extrapolated with the use of an established benchmark, "warping" the image to produce accurate spatial data. As of the early s, most satellite images are sold fully georeferenced. In addition, images may need to be radiometrically and atmospherically corrected. Radiometric correction Allows avoidance of radiometric errors and distortions.
The illumination of objects on the Earth surface is uneven because of different properties of the relief. This factor is taken into account in the method of radiometric distortion correction.
Topographic correction also called terrain correction In rugged mountains, as a result of terrain, the effective illumination of pixels varies considerably. In a remote sensing image, the pixel on the shady slope receives weak illumination and has a low radiance value, in contrast, the pixel on the sunny slope receives strong illumination and has a high radiance value. For the same object, the pixel radiance value on the shady slope will be different from that on the sunny slope.
Additionally, different objects may have similar radiance values. These ambiguities seriously affected remote sensing image information extraction accuracy in mountainous areas. It became the main obstacle to further application of remote sensing images. The purpose of topographic correction is to eliminate this effect, recovering the true reflectivity or radiance of objects in horizontal conditions.
It is the premise of quantitative remote sensing application. Atmospheric correction Elimination of atmospheric haze by rescaling each frequency band so that its minimum value usually realised in water bodies corresponds to a pixel value of 0. The digitizing of data also makes it possible to manipulate the data by changing gray-scale values. Interpretation is the critical process of making sense of the data. Image Analysis is the recently developed automated computer-aided application which is in increasing use.
Object-Based Image Analysis OBIA is a sub-discipline of GIScience devoted to partitioning remote sensing RS imagery into meaningful image-objects, and assessing their characteristics through spatial, spectral and temporal scale. Old data from remote sensing is often valuable because it may provide the only long-term data for a large extent of geography.
Mathematical Models for Remote Sensing Image Processing
At the same time, the data is often complex to interpret, and bulky to store. Modern systems tend to store the data digitally, often with lossless compression. The difficulty with this approach is that the data is fragile, the format may be archaic, and the data may be easy to falsify. One of the best systems for archiving data series is as computer-generated machine-readable ultrafiche , usually in typefonts such as OCR-B , or as digitized half-tone images.
Ultrafiches survive well in standard libraries, with lifetimes of several centuries. They can be created, copied, filed and retrieved by automated systems. They are about as compact as archival magnetic media, and yet can be read by human beings with minimal, standardized equipment. Generally speaking, remote sensing works on the principle of the inverse problem : while the object or phenomenon of interest the state may not be directly measured, there exists some other variable that can be detected and measured the observation which may be related to the object of interest through a calculation.
The common analogy given to describe this is trying to determine the type of animal from its footprints. For example, while it is impossible to directly measure temperatures in the upper atmosphere, it is possible to measure the spectral emissions from a known chemical species such as carbon dioxide in that region.
The frequency of the emissions may then be related via thermodynamics to the temperature in that region.Directional Filters. Typically, this ranges from 8 to 14 bits, corresponding to levels of the gray scale and up to 16, intensities or "shades" of colour, in each band.
A bibliometric study of Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing for the period 1973-2014
Use your name: From to , she was head of Ayin research group INRIA-SAM dedicated to models of spatio-temporal structure for high-resolution image processing with a focus on remote sensing. Sampling and Quantization. She received the M. Comparison of Sensor PSFs. Sensor Acronyms B. Terrain Shading.
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