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A hernia is repaired generally using a synthetic mesh either with open surgery or increasingly using less invasive laparoscopic procedures. WHAT IS A HERNIA. A to Z list of over prescription and over-the-counter medicines for both and authoritative drug information available to health professionals today. It is the most impure illegal drug available in the UK – it can be heavily cut with paracetamol, baby milk .. Today, they are rarely prescribed for this purpose.
Within each nationality and gender category the students were randomly selected. The respondents were explained the objectives of the study and were invited to participate. Written informed consent was obtained. The discussion lasted around two hours and was conducted in the afternoon in two groups of six students each. The first author PRS acted as a facilitator. The responses were recorded and analyzed qualitatively. Results The overall student opinion was positive.
Group consensus was commonly used to give numerical values for the different criteria. The large number of brands created problems in calculating cost. The students wanted more time for the exercise in the examination. Formative assessment during the learning sessions may be considered. The group members usually got along well.
Absenteeism was a problem and not all members put in their full effort. The physical working environment should be improved. Conclusions Based on what the students say, the sessions on P-drugs should be continued and strengthened.
Modifications in the sessions are required. Sessions during the clinical years and internship training can be considered.
Introduction Traditional teaching in pharmacology was characterized by passive transfer and memorizing of information about drug classes and individual compounds . Medical science in general and therapeutics in particular is undergoing rapid change and an information explosion and it is important to train doctors for self-directed learning . Learning how to evaluate and analyze information is becoming an important skill.
Traditional teaching in medical schools does not prepare students for rational therapeutics. A survey in a medical school in the United Kingdom UK had revealed that medical students felt the need for more teaching of therapeutics in the undergraduate medical curriculum . A method of orientating students towards therapeutics is to expose them to a sequential decision-making process for solving therapeutic problems . These manuals present students with a normative model for pharmacotherapeutic reasoning.
Students are taught to develop a standard treatment for common disorders and a set of first-choice drugs called Personal or P-drugs. Students develop their set of P-drugs using National and International treatment guidelines, formularies, textbooks and other sources of drug information .
A six-step problem solving approach is used to apply this set of P-drugs to specific patient problems.
The practical exercise on P-drug selection has been carried out for over two years at our institution. We follow the method described by Joshi and Jayawickramarajah . The four criteria of efficacy, safety, cost and convenience are considered while selecting a P-Drug. For a particular disease, each of the four criteria is given a score between 0 and 1 depending on the importance of the criteria for the disease condition.
This is termed the weight. The total scores of the four criteria should add up to one. First a group is chosen according to the defined criteria and then an individual drug is chosen from the selected group. The first step is to choose a particular drug group. For each cell the value given is multiplied by the weight to get a final value. The values under the four criteria are added together for each group of drugs. The group with the highest total is the selected group.
Drug Today Book
The same process is then followed to select a particular P-drug from the chosen group. The next step is to verify the suitability of the selected P-drug for a particular patient.
Then the students write the prescription. The exercise is carried out during the practical sessions in Pharmacology.
The students are divided into groups of 7 or 8 students each. Each group includes students mainly from Nepal, India and Sri Lanka and of both genders. The students carry out the exercise in their groups using reference materials and textbooks available in the college and departmental library.
Access to the internet and primary sources is limited but may be available. The students get around one and half hours to carry out the exercise and then present their findings. The presentation is followed by a discussion. In the practical examination students get around one and half hours to select their P-drug, verify the suitability of the drug for an individual patient and write the prescription. The problem is followed by viva-voce and assessment.
The exercise accounts for 15 of the 50 marks allotted for the practical examination. The students are permitted to bring textbooks and other reference books and refer to them during the exercise. The exercise has been carried out for different semesters of students. We regularized the exercise and introduced practical assessment for the present fourth semester students January batch. At present, these students are in the fifth semester. A hybrid approach of didactic lectures and problem-stimulated learning PSL sessions is used for Pharmacology learning .
Pharmacology is taught during the first four semesters in an integrated manner with the other basic science subjects Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Pathology, Microbiology and Community Medicine. The exercise on P-drug selection has been carried out for over two years in our institution.
This will need to be discussed with your healthcare provider. There are three P2Y12 inhibitors that doctors prescribe, which are clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor.
These two stronger agents, however, slightly increase bleeding. One of these drugs prasugrel should not be used by patients who have had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack TIA. Which one these medications your doctor prescribes will be based on what he or she feels is best for you, based on your risk of blood clots and bleeding. For example, according to the FDA link opens in new window , clopidogrel does decrease the risk of stroke and MI, but does not change the risk of death for specific patients.
Some patients who undergo coronary artery bypass surgery may be treated with a P2Y12 inhibitor for a year after the bypass operation. Cerner Multum Consumer Drug Information Multum leaflets provide basic consumer drug information, such as drug descriptions and interactions, details of possible side effects and the effects of missed doses and overdosing, as well as instructions for use. IBM Watson Micromedex Consumer Information Advanced IBM Watson Micromedex Advanced Consumer Information provides comprehensive consumer information pertaining to a wide variety of drugs, such as a list of commonly used brand names, drug descriptions, warnings and precautions, and detailed information on the proper use of each drug.
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Balversa Balversa erdafitinib is a once-daily, oral, pan-fibroblast growth factor Evenity Evenity romosozumab is an anti-sclerostin monoclonal antibody for theOne of these drugs prasugrel should not be used by patients who have had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack TIA.
Conclusions Based on what the students say, the sessions on P-drugs should be continued and strengthened. The viva-voce during assessment was felt to be helpful. Subscribe to our newsletters. The large number of brands created problems in calculating cost.
A respondent wanted the facilitators to select a few primary sources and other materials and distribute it to the different groups. The respondents felt that personal problems and one-to-one relations between individual members did not affect group dynamics. Drugs Book is mobile drug application with more than entries of drug data.
The final distribution of students with regard to gender and nationality was two Nepalese male students, two Nepalese females, three Indian females, two Indian males, one Sri Lankan male and two Sri Lankan females.