POLLUTION PDF IN HINDI
पर्यावरण प्रदूषण (Environmental Pollution in Hindi). Submitted by Hindi on Sat, 05/07/ - Add new comment · Printer Friendly, PDF & Email. वायु प्रदूषण (Air pollution in Hindi). Submitted by admin on Sat, 04/24/ - Printer Friendly, PDF & Email Facebook Twitter Google+ Share. Language hindi pollution essay of types in. Oktober in english for students reviews water pollution essay in english pdf hindi word interesting.
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For example, a study in the United States found that for the same trip, cars consumed more fuel and polluted more if the traffic was congested, than when traffic flowed freely. At average trip speeds between 20 and 40 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emission was twice as much as when the average speed was 55 to 75 kilometers per hour.
At average trip speeds between 5 and 20 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emissions were 4 to 8 times as much as when the average speed was 55 to 70 kilometers per hour. Traffic gridlock in Delhi and other Indian cities is extreme.
At such speeds, vehicles in India emit air pollutants 4 to 8 times more than they would with less traffic congestion; Indian vehicles also consume a lot more carbon footprint fuel per trip, than they would if the traffic congestion was less. Emissions of particles and heavy metals increase over time because the growth of the fleet and mileage outpaces the efforts to curb emissions.
Air pollution in India
The shaded area represents the dead weight loss. The MAC curve denotes the additional cost of achieving one more unit decrease in level of emissions. MD denotes the additional damage caused by an additional unit of emission.
India was the third largest emitter of carbon dioxide in at 6. The peak in global CO2 emissions is not yet in sight. About 9 percent of India's emissions were from transportation cars, trains, two wheelers, aeroplanes, others.
India's coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants are inefficient and offer significant potential for CO2 emission reduction through better technology. Compared to the average emissions from coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants in European Union EU countries, India's thermal power plants emit 50 to percent more CO2 per kWh produced.
Effects[ edit ] Health costs of air pollution[ edit ] Aasthma is the leading health problem faced by Indians. One of the most important reasons for concern for the growing air pollution in the country is its effects on the health of individuals.
Exposure to particulate matter for a long time can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer and heart attacks. The Global Burden of Disease Study for , published in , had found that outdoor air pollution was the fifth-largest killer in India and around , early deaths occurred from air pollution-related diseases in Some pesticides are applied to plants by spraying from a distance—even from airplanes.
This practice can create spray drift when the wind carries the materials to nearby waterways. Efforts to reduce the use of the most toxic and long-lasting pesticides in industrial countries have largely been successful, but the rules for their use in developing countries may be more permissive, and the rules of application may not be known or enforced.
Hence, health risks from pesticide water pollution are higher in such countries WHO Naturally occurring toxic chemicals can also contaminate groundwater, such as the high metal concentrations in underground water sources in mining areas.
The most extensive problem of this type is the arsenic contamination of groundwater in Argentina, Bangladesh box Fluoride is another substance that may occur naturally at high concentrations in parts of China, India, Sri Lanka, Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean. Although fluoride helps prevent dental decay, exposure to levels greater than 1.
Exposure to levels greater than 10 milligrams per liter can cause crippling skeletal fluorosis Smith The presence of arsenic in tube wells in Bangladesh because of natural contamination from underground geological layers was first confirmed in Ironically, the United Nations Children's Fund had introduced the wells in the more Water disinfection using chemicals is another source of chemical contamination of water.
Chlorination is currently the most widely practiced and most cost-effective method of disinfecting large community water supplies. This success in disinfecting water supplies has contributed significantly to public health by reducing the transmission of waterborne disease. However, chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in water to form potentially toxic chemical compounds, known collectively as disinfection by-products International Agency for Research on Cancer Exposure to Chemical Water Pollution Drinking contaminated water is the most direct route of exposure to pollutants in water.
The actual exposure via drinking water depends on the amount of water consumed, usually 2 to 3 liters per day for an adult, with higher amounts for people living in hot areas or people engaged in heavy physical work. Use of contaminated water in food preparation can result in contaminated food, because high cooking temperatures do not affect the toxicity of most chemical contaminants.
Inhalation exposure to volatile compounds during hot showers and skin exposure while bathing or using water for recreation are also potential routes of exposure to water pollutants. Toxic chemicals in water can affect unborn or young children by crossing the placenta or being ingested through breast milk. Estimating actual exposure via water involves analyzing the level of the contaminant in the water consumed and assessing daily water intake WHO Biological monitoring using blood or urine samples can be a precise tool for measuring total exposure from water, food, and air Yassi and others Health Effects No published estimates are available of the global burden of disease resulting from the overall effects of chemical pollutants in water.
The burden in specific local areas may be large, as in the example cited in box Other examples of a high local burden of disease are the nervous system diseases of methylmercury poisoning Minamata disease , the kidney and bone diseases of chronic cadmium poisoning Itai-Itai disease , and the circulatory system diseases of nitrate exposure methemoglobinemia and lead exposure anemia and hypertension.
Acute exposure to contaminants in drinking water can cause irritation or inflammation of the eyes and nose, skin, and gastrointestinal system; however, the most important health effects are due to chronic exposure for example, liver toxicity to copper, arsenic, or chromium in drinking water. Excretion of chemicals through the kidney targets the kidney for toxic effects, as seen with chemicals such as cadmium, copper, mercury, and chlorobenzene WHO Pesticides and other chemical contaminants that enter waterways through agricultural runoff, stormwater drains, and industrial discharges may persist in the environment for long periods and be transported by water or air over long distances.
They may disrupt the function of the endocrine system, resulting in reproductive, developmental, and behavioral problems. The endocrine disruptors can reduce fertility and increase the occurrence of stillbirths, birth defects, and hormonally dependent cancers such as breast, testicular, and prostate cancers.
The effects on the developing nervous system can include impaired mental and psychomotor development, as well as cognitive impairment and behavior abnormalities WHO and International Programme on Chemical Safety Examples of endocrine disruptors include organochlorines, PCBs, alkylphenols, phytoestrogens natural estrogens in plants , and pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics and synthetic sex hormones from contraceptives.
Chemicals in drinking water can also be carcinogenic.
Disinfection by-products and arsenic have been a particular concern International Agency for Research on Cancer Interventions The variety of hazardous pollutants that can occur in air or water also leads to many different interventions. Interventions pertaining to environmental hazards are often more sustainable if they address the driving forces behind the pollution at the community level rather than attempt to deal with specific exposures at the individual level.
In addition, effective methods to prevent exposure to chemical hazards in the air or water may not exist at the individual level, and the only feasible individual-level intervention may be treating cases of illness. Figure Some would label interventions at the driving force level as policy instruments. These include legal restrictions on the use of a toxic substance, such as banning the use of lead in gasoline, or community-level policies, such as boosting public transportation and reducing individual use of motor vehicles.
Interventions at the level of the state of the environment would include air quality monitoring linked to local actions to reduce pollution during especially polluted periods for example, banning vehicle use when pollution levels reach predetermined thresholds.
Interventions at the exposure level include using household water filters to reduce arsenic in drinking water as done in Bangladesh. Finally, interventions at the effect level would include actions by health services to protect or restore the health of people already showing signs of an adverse effect.
Interventions to Reduce Air Pollution Reducing air pollution exposure is largely a technical issue. Technologies to reduce pollution at its source are plentiful, as are technologies that reduce pollution by filtering it away from the emission source end-of-pipe solutions; see, for example, Gwilliam, Kojima, and Johnson Getting these technologies applied in practice requires government or corporate policies that guide technical decision making in the right direction.
Such policies could involve outright bans such as requiring lead-free gasoline or asbestos-free vehicle brake linings or building materials ; guidance on desirable technologies for example, providing best-practice manuals ; or economic instruments that make using more polluting technologies more expensive than using less polluting technologies an example of the polluter pays principle.
Examples of technologies to reduce air pollution include the use of lead-free gasoline, which allows the use of catalytic converters on vehicles' exhaust systems. Such technologies significantly reduce the emissions of several air pollutants from vehicles box For trucks, buses, and an increasing number of smaller vehicles that use diesel fuel, improving the quality of the diesel itself by lowering its sulfur content is another way to reduce air pollution at the source.
More fuel-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid gas-electric vehicles, are another way forward. These vehicles can reduce gasoline consumption by about 50 percent during city driving. Policies that reduce "unnecessary" driving, or traffic demand management, can also reduce air pollution in urban areas. A system of congestion fees, in which drivers have to pay before entering central urban areas, was introduced in Singapore, Oslo, and London and has been effective in this respect.
Mexico City is one of the world's largest megacities, with nearly 20 million inhabitants.
Local authorities have acknowledged its air quality problems since the s. The emissions from several million motor vehicles more Power plants and industrial plants that burn fossil fuels use a variety of filtering methods to reduce particles and scrubbing methods to reduce gases, although no effective method is currently available for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
High chimneys dilute pollutants, but the combined input of pollutants from a number of smokestacks can still lead to an overload of pollutants. Large combined emissions from industry and power stations in the eastern United States drift north with the winds and cause damage to Canadian ecosystems.
In Europe, emissions from the industrial belt across Belgium, Germany, and Poland drift north to Sweden and have damaged many lakes there. The convergence of air pollutants from many sources and the associated health effects have also been documented in relation to the multiple fires in Indonesia's rain forest in Brauer and Hisham-Hashim ; the brown cloud over large areas of Asia, which is mainly related to coal burning; and a similar brown cloud over central Europe in the summer, which is caused primarily by vehicle emissions.
Managing air pollution interventions involves monitoring air quality, which may focus on exceedances of air quality guidelines in specific hotspots or on attempts to establish a specific population's average exposure to pollution.
Sophisticated modeling in combination with monitoring has made it possible to start producing detailed estimates and maps of air pollution levels in key urban areas World Bank , thus providing a powerful tool for assessing current health impacts and estimated changes in the health impacts brought about by defined air pollution interventions. Interventions to Reduce Water Pollution Water pollution control requires action at all levels of the hierarchical framework shown in figure The ideal method to abate diffuse chemical pollution of waterways is to minimize or avoid the use of chemicals for industrial, agricultural, and domestic purposes.
Adapting practices such as organic farming and integrated pest management could help protect waterways Scheierling Chemical contamination of waterways from industrial emissions could be reduced by cleaner production processes UNEP International and local experts initiated waste more Other interventions include proper treatment of hazardous waste and recycling of chemical containers and discarded products containing chemicals to reduce solid waste buildup and leaching of toxic chemicals into waterways.
A variety of technical solutions are available to filter out chemical waste from industrial processes or otherwise render them harmless. Changing the pH of wastewater or adding chemicals that flocculate the toxic chemicals so that they settle in sedimentation ponds are common methods.
The same principle can be used at the individual household level. One example is the use of iron chips to filter out arsenic from contaminated well water in Bangladeshi households Kinniburgh and Smedley Intervention Costs and Cost-Effectiveness This chapter cannot follow the detailed format for the economic analysis of different preventive interventions devised for the disease-specific chapters, because the exposures, health effects, and interventions are too varied and because of the lack of overarching examples of economic assessments.
Nevertheless, it does present a few examples of the types of analyses available.
Comparison of Interventions A review of more than 1, reports on cost per life year saved in the United States for interventions in the environment and other fields table The net costs included only direct costs and savings. Indirect costs, such as forgone earnings, were excluded.
Future costs and life years saved were discounted at 5 percent per year.
Interventions with a cost per life year saved of less than or equal to zero cost less to implement than the value of the lives saved. Each of three categories of interventions toxin control, fatal injury reduction, and medicine presented in table The cost-effective interventions in the air pollution area could be of value in developing countries as their industrial and transportation pollution situations become similar to the United States in the s.
The review by Tengs and others does not report the extent to which the various interventions were implemented in existing pollution control or public health programs, and many of the most cost-effective interventions are probably already in wide use.
The review did create a good deal of controversy in the United States, because professionals and nongovernmental organizations active in the environmental field accused the authors of overestimating the costs and underestimating the benefits of controls over chemicals see, for example, U.
Congress Costs and Savings in Relation to Pollution Control A number of publications review and discuss the evidence on the costs and benefits of different pollution control interventions in industrial countries see, for example, U. For developing countries, specific data on this topic are found primarily in the so-called gray literature: government reports, consultant reports, or reports by the international banks.
In each city, an emissions inventory was established, and rudimentary dispersion modeling was carried out.
Various mitigation measures for reducing PM10 and health impacts were examined in terms of reductions in tons of PM10 emitted, cost of implementation, time frame for implementation, and health benefits and their associated cost savings. Some of the abatement measures that have been implemented include introducing unleaded gasoline, tightening standards, introducing low-smoke lubricants for two-stroke engine vehicles, implementing inspections of vehicle exhaust emissions to address gross polluters, and reducing garbage burning.
Transportation policies and industrial development do not usually have air quality considerations as their primary objective, but the World Bank has developed a method to take these considerations into account. The costs of different air quality improvement policies are explored in relation to a baseline investment and the estimated health effects of air pollution.
A comparison will indicate the cost-effectiveness of each policy. The World Bank has worked out this "overlay" approach in some detail for the energy and forestry sectors in the analogous case of greenhouse gas reduction strategies World Bank Water Pollution The costs and benefits associated with interventions to remove chemical contaminants from water need to be assessed on a local or national basis to determine specific needs, available resources, environmental conditions including climate , and sustainability.
A developing country for which substantial economic analysis of interventions has been carried out is China Dasgupta, Wang, and Wheeler ; Zhang and others Another country with major concerns about chemicals arsenic in water is Bangladesh. The arsenic mitigation programs have applied various arsenic removal technologies, but the costs and benefits are not well established.
Alternative water supplies need to be considered when the costs of improving existing water sources outweigh the benefits. Harvesting rainwater may provide communities with safe drinking water, free of chemicals and micro-organisms, but contamination from roofs and storage tanks needs to be considered. Rainwater collection is relatively inexpensive.
Nature, Causes, and Burden of Air and Water Pollution
Economic Benefits of Interventions One of the early examples of cost-benefit analysis for chemical pollution control is the Japan Environment Agency's study of three Japanese classical pollution diseases: Yokkaichi asthma, Minamata disease, and Itai-Itai disease table This analysis was intended to highlight the economic aspects of pollution control and to encourage governments in developing countries to consider both the costs and the benefits of industrial development.
The calculations take into account the 20 or 30 years that have elapsed since the disease outbreaks occurred and annualize the costs and benefits over a year period. The pollution damage costs are the actual payments for victims' compensation and the cost of environmental remediation.
The quality of the fuel being supplied in Delhi has been significantly improved over the years by the ban of selling leaded petrol, introduction of low sulphur diesel, reduction of sulphur and benzene content in petrol. There has been regular placement of dustbins, purchase of additional front-end loaders, mechanical sweepers, dumper placers, tipper trucks, to collect and dispose of garbage. Steps are taken to transform garbage into compost by developing new sanitary land-fill sites.
The Delhi Government has constituted a committee to implement the Bio-Medical Waste management and handling Rules, But we need proper and efficient implementation of plans and programmes and policies launched by the Government. How can citizens of Delhi help in reducing pollution?
Pollution in Delhi is a perpetual problem which need to be looked upon as a serious issue not only by the Government but also by the citizens of the city.
One of the easiest ways is that there should be an efficient involvement of Resident Welfare Associations in various localities in collection, segregation of garbage from houses and the societies. Citizens can take steps to covert the garbage into compost in their localities. More and more trees must be planted in every locality.
Every individual should keep a proper check on the pollution level of their vehicles.
Making more use of CNG. One of the best ways to control pollution is to manage wastes of all types in a proper manner.Another type of air pollution that can have disastrous consequences is radioactive pollution from a malfunctioning nuclear power station, as occurred in Chernobyl in WHO Intervention Costs and Cost-Effectiveness This chapter cannot follow the detailed format for the economic analysis of different preventive interventions devised for the disease-specific chapters, because the exposures, health effects, and interventions are too varied and because of the lack of overarching examples of economic assessments.
Environmental Health Perspectives. Environmental Protection Agency This problem is not unique to India, but prevalent in many developing countries including those outside of south Asia. The results will be hourly values of air pollutants, on a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the Nordic countries over several decades input to WP3.
That night, in fretful sleep, I met her again.