FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING IN SCALA EBOOK
Learn Scala By Examples. Contribute to awantik/scala-programming development by creating an account on GitHub. Functional Programming in Scala is a serious tutorial for programmers looking to learn FP and apply it to the everyday business of coding. The book guides. Get FREE eBooks. Learn best practices for building reactive applications.
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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Alvin took the circuitous route to software development. Functional Programming, Simplified: (Scala edition) Kindle Edition. by. Editorial Reviews. wildlifeprotection.info Review. Q&A with Michael Bevilacqua-Linn, author of wildlifeprotection.info: Functional Programming Patterns in Scala and Clojure: Write Lean Programs for the JVM eBook: Michael Bevilacqua-Linn: Kindle Store. View Test Prep - Functional Programming in wildlifeprotection.info from EEL at University of South Florida. wildlifeprotection.info MEAP Edition Manning Early Access.
Don't be deterred. Keep a beginner's mind, try to suspend judgment, and if 2 you must be skeptical, don't let this skepticism get in the way of learning.
When you start to feel more fluent at expressing functional programs, then take a step back and evaluate what you think of the FP approach. This book does not require any prior experience with Scala, but we won't spend a lot of time and space discussing Scala's syntax and language features. Instead we'll introduce them as we go, with a minimum of ceremony, mostly using short examples, and mostly as a consequence of covering other material.
These minimal introductions to Scala should be enough to get you started with the exercises. If you have further questions about the Scala language while working on the exercises, you are expected to do some research and experimentation on your own or follow some of our links to further reading.
Part 1 introduces functional programming, explains what it is, why you should care, and walks through the basic low-level techniques of FP, including how to organize and structure small functional programs, define functional data structures, and handle errors functionally. These techniques will be used as the building blocks for all subsequent parts.
Part 2 introduces functional design using a number of worked examples of functional libraries. It will become clear that these libraries follow certain patterns, which highlights the need for new cognitive tools for abstracting and generalizing code—we introduce these tools and explore concepts related to them in Part 3.
Though the book can be read sequentially straight through, the material in Part 3 will make the most sense after you have a strong familiarity with the functional style of programming developed over parts 1 and 2. After Part 2, it may therefore be a good idea to take a break and try getting more practice writing functional programs beyond the shorter exercises we work on throughout the chapters. Part 4 also builds heavily on the ideas and techniques of Part 3, so a second break after Part 3 to get experience with these techniques in larger projects may be a good idea before moving on.
Of course, how you read this book is ultimately up to you, and you are free to read ahead if you wish. Most chapters in this book have similar structure.
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We introduce and explain some new idea or technique with an example, then work through a number of exercises, introducing further material via the exercises. The exercises thus serve 3 two purposes: to help you to understand the ideas being discussed and to guide you to discover for yourself new ideas that are relevant.
Therefore we strongly suggest that you download the exercise source code and do the exercises as you go through each chapter.
Exercises, hints and answers are all available at. We also encourage you to visit the scala-functional Google group and the fp-in-scala IRC channel on irc. Exercises are marked for both their difficulty and to indicate whether they are critical or noncritical.
We will mark exercises that we think are hard or that we consider to be critical to understanding the material. The hard designation is our effort to give you some idea of what to expect—it is only our guess and you may find some unmarked questions difficult and some questions marked hard to be quite easy.
The critical designation is applied to exercises that address concepts that we will be building on and are therefore important to understand fully. Noncritical exercises are still informative but can be skipped without impeding your ability to follow further material.
Examples are given throughout the book and they are meant to be tried rather than just read. We encourage you to experiment on your own with variations of what you see in the examples. A good way to understand something is to change it slightly and see how the change affects the outcome. Sometimes we will show a REPL session to demonstrate the result of running some code. This lets us give you a complete and concise definition without breaking the flow of the main text with overly formal language, and also makes it easy to refer back to when needed.
There are chapter notes which includes references to external resources and 4 several appendix chapters after Part 4. Throughout the book we provide references to this supplementary material, which you can explore on your own if that interests you.
Have fun and good luck. In other words, functions that have no side effects. What does this mean exactly? Performing any of the following actions directly would involve a side effect: Reassigning a variable Modifying a data structure in place Setting a field on an object Throwing an exception or halting with an error Printing to the console or reading user input Reading from or writing to a file Drawing on the screen Consider what programming would be like without the ability to do these things.
It may be difficult to imagine.
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How is it even possible to write useful programs at all? If we can't reassign variables, how do we write simple programs like loops? What about working with data that changes, or handling errors without throwing exceptions?
The answer is that we can still write all of the same programs—programs that can do all of the above and more—without resorting to side effects. Functional programming is a restriction on how we write programs, but not on what programs we can write. And it turns out that accepting this restriction is tremendously 6 beneficial because of the increase in modularity that we gain from programming with pure functions.
Because of their modularity, pure functions are easier to test, to reuse, to parallelize, to generalize, and to reason about. But reaping these benefits requires that we revisit the act of programming, starting from the simplest of tasks and building upward from there. In many cases we discover how programs that seem to necessitate side effects have some purely functional analogue.
In other cases we find ways to structure code so that effects occur but are not observable For example, we can mutate data that is declared locally in the body of some function if we ensure that it cannot be referenced outside that function. Nevertheless, FP is a truly radical shift in how programs are organized at every level—from the simplest of loops to high-level program architecture.
The style that emerges is quite different, but it is a beautiful and cohesive approach to programming that we hope you come to appreciate.
In this book, you will learn the concepts and principles of FP as they apply to every level of programming. We begin in this chapter by explaining what a pure function is, as well as what it isn't.
We also try to give you an idea of just why purity results in greater modularity and code reuse. Furthermore, if it really is a function, it will do nothing else. In other words, a function has no observable effect on the execution of the program other than to compute a result given its inputs; we say that it has no side effects.
We sometimes qualify such functions as pure functions to make this more explicit. You already know about pure functions. It takes two integer values and returns an integer value. For any two given integer values it will always return the same integer value.
Another example is the length function of a String in Java, Scala, and many other languages. For any given string, the same length is always returned and nothing else occurs. We can formalize this idea of pure functions by using the concept of referential transparency RT.
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This is a property of expressions in general and not just 7 functions. For the purposes of our discussion, consider an expression to be any part of a program that can be evaluated to a result, i. This has no side effect.
The evaluation of this expression results in the same value 5 every time. This is all it means for an expression to be referentially transparent—in any program, the expression can be replaced by its result without changing the meaning of the program.
And we say that a function is pure if its body is RT, assuming RT inputs.
SIDEBAR Referential transparency and purity An expression e is referentially transparent if for all programs p, all occurrences of e in p can be replaced by the result of evaluating e, without affecting the observable behavior of p. I really would recommend this book to any programmer wanting to find out more about the Scala language. This book is an invaluable guide to what I like to call Scala the Platform: a vehicle to better coding, a constant inspiration for scalable software design and implementation.
If only I had Scala in its present mature state and this book on my desk back in , when co-designing and implementing parts of the Athens Olympic Games Portal infrastructure!
To all readers: No matter what your programming background is, I feel you will find programming in Scala liberating and this book will be a loyal friend in the journey. I'd say that it occupies a prominent place on my bookshelf, except that I'm still carrying it around with me nearly everywhere I go. I bought an early electronic version of the Programming in Scala book, by Odersky, Spoon, and Venners, and I was immediately a fan.
In addition to the fact that it contains the most comprehensive information about the language, there are a few key features of the electronic format that impressed me. I have never seen links used as well in a PDF, not just for bookmarks, but also providing active links from the table of contents and index.
I don't know why more authors don't use this feature, because it's really a joy for the reader. Another feature which I was impressed with was links to the forums "Discuss" and a way to send comments "Suggest" to the authors via email. The comments feature by itself isn't all that uncommon, but the simple inclusion of a page number in what is generated to send to the authors is valuable for both the authors and readers.
I contributed more comments than I would have if the process would have been more arduous. Read Programming in Scala for the content, but if you're reading the electronic version, definitely take advantage of the digital features that the authors took the care to build in!
I would recommend it to both seasoned programmers and newbies.
Functional Programming in Scala
Consulting This is a great introduction to functional programming for OO programmers. Learning about FP was my main goal, but I also got acquainted with some nice Scala surprises like case classes and pattern matching. Scala is an intriguing language and this book covers it well. There's always a fine line to walk in a language introduction book between giving too much or not enough information. I find Programming in Scala to achieve a perfect balance.
This book is certainly a must buy for anyone aspiring to learn Scala.
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I've never read a tutorial-style book before that accomplishes to be introductory yet comprehensive: in their misguided attempt to be approachable and not "confuse" the reader, most tutorials silently ignore aspects of a subject that are too advanced for the current discussion.
This leaves a very bad taste, as one can never be sure as to the understanding one has achieved. There is always some residual "magic" that hasn't been explained and cannot be judged at all by the reader. This book never does that, it never takes anything for granted: every detail is either sufficiently explained or a reference to a later explanation is given.
Indeed, the text is extensively cross-referenced and indexed, so that forming a complete picture of a complex topic is relatively easy. This is one of those well-written technical books that provide deep and comprehensive coverage of the subject in exceptionally concise and elegant manner.
The book organized in a very natural and logical way.
It is equally well suited for a curious technologist who just wants to stay on top of the current trends and a professional seeking deep understanding of the language core features and its design rationales.A possible design.
Exercises are marked for both their difficulty and to indicate whether they are critical or noncritical. Java Cryptography. Property-based testing Chapter 9.
There's always a fine line to walk in a language introduction book between giving too much or not enough information. A brief tour of property-based testing.