PEDRO ALECRIM PDF
wildlifeprotection.info - Download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. PEDRO wildlifeprotection.info - Download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. Pedro Alecrim by António Mota is Fantasy Pedro Alecrim é um jovem que, como tantos outros da sua aldeia, passa os dias entre a escola, os amigos e o.
|Language:||English, Spanish, French|
|ePub File Size:||20.37 MB|
|PDF File Size:||19.19 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Check out my latest presentation built on wildlifeprotection.info, where anyone can create & share professional presentations, websites and photo albums in minutes. L Alecrim & L Amorim Prophylactic Architecture: Spatial configuration of .. de ser tem força: narrativa sobre a doença e a internação de Pedro Baptista. Convert documents to beautiful publications and share them worldwide. Title: Pedro Alecrim, Author: Isabel Capela, Length: 67 pages, Published:
Although the exact burden of disease is still a matter of debate, it is likely that it has been underestimated and that P. The emergence of worsening clinical severity and chloroquine resistance are two major factors responsible for this increasing burden.
Plasmodium vivax infections have been associated with mild symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, chills, and musculoskeletal pain, in particular paroxysms. Recently, however, severe complications, including renal failure, jaundice, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, seizures, anaemia, hyperparasitaemia, thrombocytopenia, pulmonary edema, splenic rupture and death, have been reported in exclusive association with P.
Chloroquine resistance CQR is a major determinant of the present resurgence of malaria worldwide, including that of P. Two main transporters have been studied in regard to CQR in P. Interestingly, amino acid polymorphisms have not been associated with chloroquine resistance in pvcrt-o whereas pvmdr1 polymorphisms have been recently suggested to be associated with CQR in Southeast Asia [ 8 ]. This data indicates the involvement of other mechanisms in CQR in P. Likely candidates are gene amplifications and differential expression levels [ 9 , 10 ].
Moreover, according to data from the Spanish National Center of Epidemiology and the Autonomous Government of Catalonia there have been cases of P. In addition, three cases of severe symptoms due to P. These figures illustrate the clinical-epidemiological importance of this parasitic disease in a supposedly malaria-free region.
Recently, CQR in P. Here, the first clinical case of severe vivax malaria in Spain is presented. The data also indicates that clinical severity could be associated with increased expression levels of two parasite genes likely involved in chloroquine resistance, pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o. One had severe symptoms and the other mild symptoms.
The patients had travelled through the Brazilian Amazon Manaus for 31 and 19 days, respectively, in The patient with severe symptoms was a year-old Spaniard man who had previously travelled to Kenya, in The patient presented acute respiratory conditions, anaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia, requiring admission to the intensive care unit. The patient with mild symptoms was a year-old Spaniard man who had travelled without chemoprophylaxis and who had previously visited Mexico , Vietnam , and India There were no records of fever episodes from these previous trips and neither of the patients had ever been diagnosed with malaria.
Total RNA from parasites of these patients was extracted, pooled and stored in liquid nitrogen. Samples Five mL of infected red blood cells were obtained from each patient.
One mL was used to purify genomic DNA following standard methodologies. The remaining blood was processed to isolate total RNA using the Trizol reagent Invitrogen according to the manufacturers' instructions. This type of access to the sick sector features the control exercised to it. Observing the organization of the entire colony, including its buildings and street systems, accessibility in within it is asymmetric and predominantly non-distributive.
On the other hand, the organization within subsectors has, in most cases, several rings and therefore various alternatives of movement. Thus, relations between sectors and subsectors are intensely controlled and probably operated according to rigid rules. On the other hand, within the sector, the distributive organization operates to hold meetings in more informal activities.
It is interesting to note that more movement alternative to access is provided to male subsectors in relation to other subsectors if compared to women. Although it is important to note that the male subsector is exclusively composed of residence units, whereas the female one had several support equipment.
Thus, men would have to leave their subsector to perform other activities, such as entertainment or to go to the research subsector, since the male patients would be the main research volunteers Caiuby, These three subsectors - men, amusement and research have smoother edges since there are several connections between them. As e tio ed, the si k se to s su se to s are connected to the administration subsector - where are also located the refectory pavilion, the church and conversation pavilions.
This subsector is directly connected to the access road from these last two devices. The graph on Figure 03 presents all permeability possibilities in the open spaces of the complex. The relation of them with buildings is shown as an interface, which may or may not also provide permeability through the building when it has multiple accesses.
When the permeability exists, this can still be changed by social measures - behavioural rules, coercive signs or even by closing doors, ceasing the permeability to specific classes at limited time.
Those buildings are devices conceived to allow co-awareness and co-presence without compromising the prophylactic precepts.
They functioned as mediators of sectors within the complex and its occupants. At them, the space is a mediator for the encounter of distinct categories of the complex, supported by precise and complex rules, representing a long model Hillier and Penn, Each spatial unit was identified with a category or was assigned as mediator when connected different categories.
livro de isostatica pdf viewer
When an aggregation of continuous spaces of same category was identified, these spaces sequences were represented by a single node, corresponding to a subsector Amorim, The sector graph resulted by grouping all subsectors in sick sector. Figure 3: Permeability between the wings, and therefore among the subsectors in fact exists but it occur in staff domain area. Hence, this permeability is not presented to the patient.
The church, on the other hand, was conceived as a device to provide a certain type of encounter between sick and healthy.
The building is divided into three wards for the public healthy, men and women and one for the altar and the dependencies of the religious. Finally, the Conversation Pavilion provided the encounter of interns with strangers to the complex. But to allow the encounter between patients and the healthy could undermine the main objective of the institution: So, the Conversation Pavilion was designed to provide the meeting through the adjacency of spaces intended for different categories and the installation of a transparent material, the glass, between them.
Co-science would be possible thus the contact was impossible Figure Figure 4: Thus, the Model Leper Colony selects and orders its users at various levels, from their overall organization to the buildings that promote the encounter of different classes.
The non-distributive structure between sectors and between subsectors associated with the distributiveness within the subsector is probably related to aspects of a free life presented in the medical and social discourse Caiuby, ; Ribas, associated with the necessary control to maintain order in the institution.
The permeability between subsectors occurs under strong programs, since it is a regulated and controlled activity. Mirueira Colony The Mirueira Colony Figures 05 and 06 was part of the National Plan to Combat Leprosy and it was built in a small valley surrounded by hills, near a virgin forest, fourteen kilometres away from Recife, capital of the State of Pernambuco.
The first and most obvious categorical distinction is between the interior and the exterior of the colony.
In order to ensure separation between the institution and the outside world, the physical structure for insulation is a fundamental element in a total institution Goffman, , but the social expectations indicated that any forced seclusion aspect should be avoided.
The recommendation of installing the colony in lands with just one access point Continentino, allows for a deep spatial structure without the need for building walls. Figure 6: GC foto The health se to is lo ated at the highe le els lose to the olo s entrance and contained houses for administration employees, doctors and directors.
This healthy se to s ele ated positio allo ed the su eilla e of eut al a d si k se to s. The o l a ess to the colony is through the healthy sector. The interface between the medical and administrative staff s residences and the road access resulted in a potential surveillance by the healthy all the time, which ei fo ed the o t ol of the olo s o l a ess.
Figure 7: Mirueira Colony — i te fa e ap, justified g aph, se to s g aph, su se to s graph. This same road led to the neutral and the sick sector, both located in lower area and surrounded by hills. Only one alternative connection is provided directly between the two sectors, through the road where the infirmary is. Aside from this, the entire relation between them occurs through the main road that begins in the healthy sector.
However, relations with this route at the neutral and sick sectors are so fluid and with so many points of contact that they can be understood as a unique sector.
It is only in the relation between the healthy and neutral sectors that there is a cut-vertex Steadman, An observation pavilion, the administration building, a pharmacy with laboratory and the house of the nuns composed the neutral sector.
There was also a house for the nurses and a purge pavilion with a dressing room where the staff eliminated the dangers of contamination after contact with patients. The boundary between the neutral and sick sectors was marked by the facilities in which it was necessary the encounter of sick and healthy: In the Medical Services Pavilion Figure 08 , their meeting only occurred at the consulting room, with independent circulations for each category.
As in Model Leper Colony, the referred buildings are devices conceived to allow co-awareness and co-presence of distinct categories without compromising the prophylactic precepts and so represent a long model Hillier and Penn, Figure GC foto In sick sector were exclusive facilities to patients - housing, leisure and services.
The residential subsectors have defined boundaries - men, women, married and taxpayers occupy different places in the complex, with only one or two accesses to the mediator street. The categorical distinction is very clear in Mirueira between the patients and obeys two axes in the plan. A horizontal axe, in which there is a distinction among patients by gender, and other vertical, with the distinction by social class, even more restrictive than the first one.
It would be the government's way to establish the so ial ules, i a a that pe ulia hie a h of all hu a so ieties is espe ted , as poi ted out Continentino In this plan, the central area, marked by the area for sports and leisure and the amusement pavilion, while it unites all people, since it is equidistant from all residence subsectors, is the separator element between taxpayers and indigent.
Thus, relations between sectors and subsectors of each sector are intensely controlled and probably operated by rigid rules, in a structured derived from a long model. Prophylactic Architecture The study of spatial pattern of leper colonies offers the opportunity to analyse the relationship between the requirements of leprosy prophylaxis and form and space principles. Architecture and urban planning were understood as result of requirements to meet the aim of certain institutions.
Therefore, these requirements structures spaces in which people move and act, providing the material preconditions for the movement and encounter patterns which are material achievements of social relations Hillier and Hanson, ; Markus, The primary function of the leper colony was isolating the patient from society.
But the isolation principle was not enough to ensure the proper functioning of this institution. It was also necessary the division of space a o di gl to the o upa t s lasses a d the dist i utio of i di iduals i it, with defined position of each one in the series and the distance that separates him from the other Foucault, , thus establishing presences and absences and establishing communications and i te upti g othe s, i a a to e a le the su eilla e a d a al sis of ea h i di idual s eha iou.
Classification is a key for the spatial discourse. As seen, a total of eight classes should be arranged in the device. The classes were organized in a non-distributive way and classes with equivalent status were usually at the same depth. The hierarchically superior class - the healthy - is always in the role of access controller to the system, while those related to patients — with no categorical distinction between them - are located within the same depth regarding this access. Sociability in such a complex could be established, and indeed the distributive structure within subsectors would provide encounters, but this would always be between individuals of the same class.
Men and women would never meet in Model Leper Colony. But patient voluntary internment desired by prophylactic campaign would hardly be achieved if possibilities of interaction between men and women were not offered, since this is an important aspect of social life.
That is probably why in Mirueira Colony, as in other colonies built in Brazil Alecrim, , the categorical distinction between men and women are not as strict as those found in Model Leper Colony, at least not in its spatial structure. Nevertheless, the encounter of men and women and permission to dating and a iages ithi the olo ies sho s it as esse tial to a hie e a esse tial poi t of so ial life s reproduction — even if it is a controlled event.
At Mirueira Colony, for example, social rules defined that unmarried couples could only meet in the presence of a married couple or a nun Oliveira, To ala e the e ou te pote tial p o ided the spatial st u tu e, so ial o t ol s e ha is s were conceived to curb disobedience to regulations. At Mirueira Colony, as in most colonies in Brazil Alecrim, , the administration is located at neutral or even healthy sector in opposition of what is proposed in the Model Leper Colony, that it is located in a central position at sick sector.
At those colonies there was a surveillance pyramid on interns that had on its base some of the patients themselves operating in maintaining order: With the existence of such jurisdiction, subordinated to general direction of the colony, it was unnecessary the presence of a healthy administration among the patients — which reinforces the aspect of a normal life. The exception in the segregation of classes occurred at institutional ceremonies that aimed a greater approach between those classes.
The aim of such institutional celebrations was the temporary release of the papers as a way to ease tensions and mounting frustrations, allowing further integration between the intern and the staff Goffman, At the colonies, those are represented by celebration of festive dates, such as Carnival or Christmas, when everyone celebrated together. Meetings between the different classes were programmed and monitored, guided by a strong program Hillier et. The study of the spatial pattern of the Model Leper Colony and Mirueira Colony shows that the architectural space restricts and selects users of the complex accordingly to their functions and contributes to the leprosy prophylaxis structured in the first decades of the twentieth century, both by isolating the sick from society as to ensure the operation of the order, and by the protection of the healthy working there.
As pointed out by Markus , p. Time and space are joined in rules, which govern the opening times of specific spaces. In short the building and its management determine who does what, where, with whom, when and observed ho Asso iated ith seg egatio dete i ed the olo ies spa e patte , patie ts e e su je ted to strict internal regulations based on the instructions of the Leprosy National Service in order to control the routine and prevent escapes or indiscipline.
Despite this, the colonies were also sociable environments. Oliveira , p. This sociability can be both subversion of the system or, more likely, a result of concession of programmed encounters. A deeper study of its social life could answer this point. But, regarding to its spatial pattern, Mirueira Colony attend the expectations expressed in its text and contributes for leprosy prophylaxis.
References Alecrim, L. U pu lished Maste s Thesis.
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. Majo , M. University College London, p. Amorim, L. Doctoral dissertation.
Available at: Caiuby, A. C uz, O. Rio de Janeiro: Foucault, M. Editora Vozes. Goffman, E. Perspectiva, Hillier, B. Cambridge University Press.
Hillie , B. I Science in Context, vol. Pepo is, J. I Po ell, J. Spon Ltd. In Webster's Medical Dictionary. Springfield, MA: I Environment and Planning B, vol. Markus, T. Neiva, A. Oliveira, C. Po de, A. Salvador — Bahia. In Revista Brasileira de Leprologia, vol. Paulo — Prophylaxia da lepra — Co tage dos ata ados de Lep a I: Serres, J.
Imprensa Nacional. Steadman, J. Pion Limited.The e e desig ed to eet all patie ts eeds, i ludi g a hospital, residences, workshops, areas for agriculture and livestock and leisure facilities. This healthy se to s ele ated positio allo ed the su eilla e of eut al a d si k se to s.
To ala e the e ou te pote tial p o ided the spatial st u tu e, so ial o t ol s e ha is s were conceived to curb disobedience to regulations.
Clark Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Abundances and diets of fishes within the families Scaridae, Acanthuridae and Kyphosidae were compared among groups of sites differing in benthic community structure and exposure regime.
C uz, O. There was an ethics of death that the young assimilated from their relationship with adults. A recently described magnetic method for the isolation of matures stages of malaria parasites was used to concentrate and purify P. Through the dialogue, emotions, and affection established between the elderly and others, old age is transformed into a positive and creative age.
- PEDRO PARAMO EBOOK
- THE KRISHNA KEY ASHWIN SANGHI PDF
- THE GOOD SOLDIER SVEJK PDF
- UAE FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY CODE 2013 PDF
- PHARMACEUTICAL CAPSULES EBOOK
- PATHER PANCHALI PDF FILE
- IL COLLEZIONISTA DI OSSA EPUB
- ENGINEERING MECHANICS HIBBELER PDF
- CURRICULUM VITAE FORMAT PDF
- TONAL HARMONY 6TH EDITION PDF
- KILLER HOMERECORDING PDF
- WORLD MAP IMAGE PDF
- FCI 2015 QUESTION PAPER PDF
- HOUSE OF CARDS BOOK
- TRY ME PDF